NA3-5: Know fractions and percentages in everyday use.
This means students will understand the meaning of the digits in a fraction, how the fraction can be written in numerals and words, or said, and the relative order and size of fractions with common denominators (bottom numbers) or common numerators (top numbers). Fundamental concepts are that fractions are iterations (repeats) of a unit fraction, for example 3/5 = 1/5 + 1/5 + 1/5 and 5/3 = 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3. This means the numerator (top number) is a count and the denominator tells the size of the parts, for example in 5/3 there are five parts. The parts are thirds created by splitting one into three equal parts. This means that fractions can be greater than one, for example 4/3 = 1 1/3, and that fractions have a counting order if the denominators are the same, for example 1/3, 2/3, 3/3, 4/3,... The size of the denominator also affects the size of the parts being counted in a fraction. For example, thirds of the same whole are smaller than halves of the same whole. So fractions with common numerators have an order of size based on the size of the parts, for example 2/7 < 2/5 < 2/3 (< means “less than”). Students at Level Three should know simple common fraction-percentage relationships, including 1/2 = 50%, 1/4 = 25%, 1/10 = 10%, 1/5 = 20%, and use this knowledge to work out non-unit fractions as percentages, for example 3/4 = 75%.