S4-4: Use simple fractions and percentages to describe probabilities.
Simple fractions and percentages in this objective are common benchmarks like one half (50%), thirds (33.3% and 66.6%), quarters (25% and 75%), fifths (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%), tenths (10%, 30%, etc). Students should know that outcomes that are certain are described by fractions equalling one, including 100%, and outcomes that are impossible are described by fractions equalling zero, including 0%. In contrived situations involving elements of chance, for example totalling two dice, students should know that the count of all possible outcomes gives the denominator of a probability fraction, for example 36 possible outcomes, and the number of desired outcomes gives the numerator, for example there are 9 ways to get a total of either 2,4 or 6 so the probability is 9/36 or 1/4 . In realistic situations where probabilities are estimated, for example the chance of a drawing pin landing safe, students are expected to accept variation from an exact fraction, for example 37 out of 100 were safe which is about or 33.3%.