Elaboration on this Achievement Objective

This means students will use words, symbols and diagrams to explain their number strategies to others. Recording also allows students to think through solutions to problems and allows them to reduce their working memory load by storing information in written form. This is particularly important for the solving of complex, multi-step problems. Students should be able to write the numerals for whole numbers to 1 000 000 at least, simple fractions, percentages and decimals. They should also be able to write addition, subtraction, multiplication and division equations with understanding of the meaning of these operations and of the equals sign as meaning “equal to”. Similarly, they should know which operation to perform on a calculator if the numbers are beyond their mental range. Students should also be familiar with using empty number lines to record addition and subtraction strategies, arrays to record multiplication and division strategies, and strip diagrams or double number lines to solve problems with fractions and percentages. Formal written algorithms for multi-digit addition and subtraction should be taught at Level Three **after students have the nested place value knowledge required to understand them.**