# Using Tens Frames to Build the Addition and Subtraction Facts to Ten

Purpose

The purpose of this unit is to build and consolidate the addition and subtraction facts to ten.  These addition and subtraction facts are building blocks for part-whole thinking.

Achievement Objectives
NA1-3: Know groupings with five, within ten, and with ten.
Specific Learning Outcomes

form addition facts to ten using dot patterns on a quinary frame.

form subtraction facts to ten using dot patterns on a quinary frame.

Description of Mathematics

### Number Framework Stage

Pre-requisite knowledge / skills: recognising and describing patterns to ten on pre-made cards

Required Resource Materials
Quinary tens frames with dot patterns for the numbers 0-10
Activity

### Activity

1. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
Tell me the number pattern?
How many gaps are there?
Teacher then states the appropriate number sentence e.g. 6 and 4 is 10.

2. Repeat several times with all cards to build facts to ten.

3. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
Who can tell me the number sentence for this card?

4. Repeat several times, ensuring that all cards (0-10) have been covered up to this point.

5. Teacher models the recording of the number sentences as “6 and 4 is ten”, then “6+4=10”

### Activity

1. Teacher explains to students that today
We are using the cards to work on take-away equations starting with ten.

2. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
How many dots could I fit on this frame?
How many have gone?
How many are left?
Who can give me a number sentence for this card?

3. If necessary the teacher gives the appropriate number sentence e.g. 10 take away 6 is 4

4. Repeat several times with all cards to build facts to ten.

5. Teacher gives the number sentence and asks the students to find the appropriate card. For example:
I had ten dots and I took away 6, how many do I have left?  Can you find the card for that? How many are left?

6. Teacher models the recording of the number sentences as “10 take away 6 is 4”, then “10 - 6 = 4”.

• Teacher demonstrates that the facts can be placed in a pattern i.e. 0 + 10 = 10, 1 + 9 = 10, 2 + 8 =10.  After the teacher has given some of the pattern students can work independently to find the rest.
• Teacher gives students the number sentence and they find the matching dot pattern.

### Independent Activities

• Students make their own dot patterns using blank tens frames and counters.  They record these using + /or - and =.  (Two sided counters ideal for this activity.)
• Students work on sheets of empty tens frames to fill in dots and record the corresponding number sentence.
• Given one card students record either two complimentary number sentences or the entire family of facts.
• Students match tens frames to appropriate number sentence on cards.

Notes:
There are many ways to record the work being done and what is appropriate depends on the students in the group.  Options include:

• Teacher records
• Draw a picture
• Number story e.g. 3 and 4 make 7
• Number sentence or equation e.g. 3 + 4 = 7
• Use pre-made equations and match these to the appropriate card
• Use digit labels