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# Using Tens Frames to Build the Addition and Subtraction Facts to Ten

Purpose:

The purpose of this unit is to build and consolidate the addition and subtraction facts to ten.  These addition and subtraction facts are building blocks for part-whole thinking.

Achievement Objectives:

Achievement Objective: NA1-3: Know groupings with five, within ten, and with ten.
AO elaboration and other teaching resources

Specific Learning Outcomes:

form addition facts to ten using dot patterns on a quinary frame.

form subtraction facts to ten using dot patterns on a quinary frame.

Description of mathematics:

### Number Framework Stage

Pre-requisite knowledge / skills: recognising and describing patterns to ten on pre-made cards

Required Resource Materials:
Quinary tens frames with dot patterns for the numbers 0-10
Activity:

### Activity

1. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
Tell me the number pattern?
How many gaps are there?
Teacher then states the appropriate number sentence e.g. 6 and 4 is 10.

2. Repeat several times with all cards to build facts to ten.

3. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
Who can tell me the number sentence for this card?

4. Repeat several times, ensuring that all cards (0-10) have been covered up to this point.

5. Teacher models the recording of the number sentences as “6 and 4 is ten”, then “6+4=10”

### Activity

1. Teacher explains to students that today
We are using the cards to work on take-away equations starting with ten.

2. Teacher holds up a tens frame and asks
How many dots could I fit on this frame?
How many have gone?
How many are left?
Who can give me a number sentence for this card?

3. If necessary the teacher gives the appropriate number sentence e.g. 10 take away 6 is 4

4. Repeat several times with all cards to build facts to ten.

5. Teacher gives the number sentence and asks the students to find the appropriate card. For example:
I had ten dots and I took away 6, how many do I have left?  Can you find the card for that? How many are left?

6. Teacher models the recording of the number sentences as “10 take away 6 is 4”, then “10 - 6 = 4”.

• Teacher demonstrates that the facts can be placed in a pattern i.e. 0 + 10 = 10, 1 + 9 = 10, 2 + 8 =10.  After the teacher has given some of the pattern students can work independently to find the rest.
• Teacher gives students the number sentence and they find the matching dot pattern.

### Independent Activities

• Students make their own dot patterns using blank tens frames and counters.  They record these using + /or - and =.  (Two sided counters ideal for this activity.)
• Students work on sheets of empty tens frames to fill in dots and record the corresponding number sentence.
• Given one card students record either two complimentary number sentences or the entire family of facts.
• Students match tens frames to appropriate number sentence on cards.

Notes:
There are many ways to record the work being done and what is appropriate depends on the students in the group.  Options include:

• Teacher records
• Draw a picture
• Number story e.g. 3 and 4 make 7
• Number sentence or equation e.g. 3 + 4 = 7
• Use pre-made equations and match these to the appropriate card
• Use digit labels