NA5-6: Know and apply standard form, significant figures, rounding, and decimal place value.

Elaboration on this Achievement Objective

This means students will be able to express a given whole number or decimal measurements in standard form and vice versa and understand the potential rounding that may be involved. Standard form (scientific notation) at this level should involve integral exponents, for example 24 300 = 2.43 x 104 or 0.0243 = 2.43 x 10-2. This understanding of decimal place value and rounding should include interpretation of the potential value of a measurement when it is expressed using significant figures, for example 2.3m (2sf.) has a potential measurement of 2. 25≤m<2.35 whereas 2.300 (4sf.) has a potential measurement of 2.295≤m<2.305. Students should also apply decimal place value and sensible rounding through estimating in a way that is suitable to the context, and recognising the effects of that rounding on the accuracy of the estimation, for example 48.7 ÷ 2.13 = ? can be estimated by 50 ÷ 2 = 25 but the rounding results in an estimate that is too high. This does not include putting error bounds on estimations.