In this unit students build on previous experiences with litres and millilitres. Work is carried out in the context of planning a party with students measuring volumes accurately as part of the planning process.

- Estimate volume using litres and millilitres.
- Accurately measure volume using litres and millilitres.

When students can measure areas effectively using non-standard units, they are ready to move to the use of standard units. The motivation for moving to this stage, often follows from experiences where the students have used different non-standard units for the same volume. This allows them to appreciate that consistency in the units used allows for easier and more accurate communication.

The usual sequence used in primary school is to introduce the litre as a measurement of volume before using cubic centimetres and cubic metres.

Students’ measurement experiences must enable them to:

- develop an understanding of the size of 1 litre and 10 millilitres. (1 millilitre is very small and difficult to appreciate, however it can be demonstrated with an eyedropper)
- estimate and measure using litres and millilitres
- develop an understanding of the size of a cubic metre and a cubic centimetre
- estimate and measure using cubic metres and cubic centimetres

Students also need to be able to read a scale to be able to measure volume accurately.

The standard units can be made meaningful by looking at the volumes of everyday objects. For example, the litre milk carton, the 2-litre ice-cream container and the 100-millilitre yoghurt pottle.

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by varying the scaffolding provided to make the learning opportunities accessible to a range of learners. Ways to support students include:

- providing students with supported practice at using equipment to measure volume
- making it clear to students that they don’t need to measure the volume of every container at a station if they need more time to measure accurately
- removing the component of estimation for students who are still developing measurement benchmarks
- pairing students so they can be supported at the station tasks.

The context for this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students. The unit begins with a discussion of students’ experiences of birthday parties. Following this discussion you could work with the students to adapt the activities at the stations to reflect their experiences. Alternatively, you may like to choose a social gathering other than birthday parties as the context for the measuring tasks. For example, the school disco, or a morning tea for whānau.

#### Station One:

- A variety of different size and shape drinking glasses, kitchen measuring jugs or measuring cylinders marked to the nearest 10 mL
- Water
- Paper and pencil
- Student instructions on Copymaster One

#### Station Two:

- A variety of different size and shape bowls
- Kitchen measuring jugs or measuring cylinders marked to the nearest 10 mL
- Water
- Paper and pencil
- Student instructions on Copymaster Two

#### Station Three:

- Lightweight cardboard, pencils, rulers, scissors, sticky tape
- Kitchen measuring jugs or measuring cylinders marked to the nearest 10 mL
- Sand
- Paper and pencil
- Student instructions on Copymaster Three

#### Station Four:

- Several different cake tins of a variety of shapes and sizes: ring tins, square tins and a roasting dish
- Kitchen measuring jugs or measuring cylinders marked to the nearest 10 mL
- Water
- Paper and pencil
- Student instructions on Copymaster Four

#### Station Five:

- Several bottles of different volumes to be used as sauce bottles
- Kitchen measuring jugs or measuring cylinders marked to the nearest 10 mL
- Water
- Paper and pencil
- Student instructions on Copymaster Five

This unit uses the context of birthday parties. Begin by discussing students' experiences at birthday parties and compare differences between families. Explain that this week they will be working at different stations to help prepare for a party. In each of these stations they will need to measure volume accurately. Points that may need to be discussed as work progresses include:

- The importance of estimation and the value of accurate estimation.
- The relationship between millilitres and litres.
- Reading volumes and scales to an appropriate accuracy. Sometimes it will be possible to estimate half-way between marked volumes.

#### Station One

In this station students accurately measure the volume of a variety of different drinking glasses.

Student instructions (Copymaster 1)

In this station you need to estimate and measure the volume of different glasses for drinks at the party.

- Estimate the volume of each of the glasses in mL. Record your estimates.
*Which glass do you think will hold the most?*

Which will hold the least?

Which glasses will hold a similar amount? - Use the measuring equipment to measure the volume of each of the glasses. Record your results in a table as you work.
Compare your results with your estimates. How close were your estimates?

*Which glass held the most?*

Which held the least?

Which glasses held a similar amount?

#### Station Two

In this station students accurately measure the volume of a variety of bowls that could be used to make jelly.

Student instructions (Copymaster 2)

In this station you need to estimate and measure the volume of different bowls used to make jelly for the party.

- Estimate the volume of each of the bowls in litres and mLs. Record your estimates.
*Which bowl do you think will hold the most?*

Which will hold the least?

Which bowls will hold a similar amount? - Use the measuring equipment to measure the volume of each of the bowls. Record your results in a table as you work.
- Compare your results with your estimates. How close were your estimates?
*Which bowl held the most?*

Which held the least?

Which bowls held a similar amount?

If each packet of jelly made 1 litre how many packets would be needed for each bowl?

How many packets would be needed for all the bowls?

#### Station Three

In this station students make baskets to hold lollies and measure the volume of the baskets they have made.

Student Instructions (Copymaster 3)

In this station you will make baskets to hold lollies for the party and measure the volume of the baskets you have made. Can you make three baskets that hold different amounts?

- Make a basket: Take a rectangular shape and cut squares of the same size out of each corner of the rectangle. Cut out the shape and tape up the sides. Cut a strip for a handle and tape it on.

- Estimate the volume of your basket. Record your estimates on a table.

*Which basket will have the greatest volume?*

*Which will have the least?* - Measure the volume of your baskets using the sand and the measuring equipment.

*How do you work out the volume of a box, like that?*

If you know the volume of the box in cubic centimetres, how do you figure out how much water in millimetres and litres, it will hold?

Record your results in a table as you work. - Compare your results with your estimates. How close were your estimates?
*Which basket held the most?*

Which held the least?

#### Station Four

In this station students measure the volume of a variety of cake tins and predict which recipe would be best to use for each tin.

Student Instructions (Copymaster 4)

In this station you need to measure the volume of the different cake tins, then decide which recipe mix would be best for each tin. Remember that the cakes will rise when they are cooked!

- Estimate the volume of each of the cake tins. Record your estimates on a table.
- Measure the volume of each of the cake tins using water and the measuring equipment. Record your measurements.
- Compare your results with your estimates. How close were your estimates?
*Which tin held the most?*

Which held the least? - Which of the recipes below would be best for each tin? You will need to add up the volume of ingredients and allow for the cake to rise when baked to be able to make a good decision.

**Recipes**

__Absurdly Easy Chocolate Cake__

Ingredients

3 cups flour (750 mL)

2 cups sugar (500 mL)

6 tablespoons cocoa (90 mL)

2 teaspoons baking soda (10 mL)

1 teaspoon salt (5 mL)

3/4 cup vegetable oil (190 mL)

2 tablespoon vinegar (30 mL)

2 teaspoon vanilla (10 mL)

2 cup cold water (500 mL)

Directions

Mix the dry ingredients. Add the wet ingredients. Stir until smooth. Bake at 180ºC for at least 30 minutes.

__One Mix Chocolate Cake __

Ingredients

1 cup self raising flour (250 mL)

1 cup sugar (250 mL)

50 grams melted butter (50 mL)

1/2 cup milk (125 mL)

2 eggs

2 Tbsp. cocoa (30 mL)

1 tsp. vanilla (5 mL)

Method

Mix all ingredients together in a large bowl with a wooden spoon. Bake at 180ºC for about 30 minutes.

__Daisy’s Easy Chocolate Cake__

Ingredients

1 1/2 cups sugar (375 mL)

1 cup cold water (250 mL)

125g butter (125 mL)

2 Tablespoons cocoa (30 mL)

1/2 teaspoon baking soda (2.5 mL)

2 eggs, well beaten

1 1/2 cups self-raising flour (375mL)

Method

Put sugar, water, butter, cocoa and soda into a large pot.

Stir over low heat until butter has melted, then bring to the boil.

Simmer for 5 minutes and remove from heat.

When mixture has cooled, stir in beaten eggs. Sift in the flour and beat well.

Bake at 180°c for 50-60 minutes.

#### Station Five

In this station students** **calculate and measure the volume of sauce needed for cheerios at the party.

Student Instructions (Copymaster 5)

- In this station you need to estimate and measure the amount of sauce needed for cheerios at the party.
- Estimate the volume of sauce in each of the bottles. Record your estimates on a table.
- Measure the volume of sauce in each bottle using water and the measuring equipment. Record your results on a table.
- If each person uses 10mL of sauce, how many people will be able to use each of the sauce bottles? Estimate then measure for each bottle, recording your results on a table.

- If each person uses 15mL of sauce, how many people will be able to use each of the sauce bottles?
- How much sauce is contained in all of the bottles put together? Estimate then measure.

Family and whānau,

This week at school we are estimating and measuring volumes using litres and millilitres. Please help find a container in your home with an estimated volume of 600 ml. Please send it to school so we can measure its volume accurately.