# How long now?

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Purpose

In this unit students compare the duration of events and learn to read time to the hour and half-hour.

Achievement Objectives
GM1-1: Order and compare objects or events by length, area, volume and capacity, weight (mass), turn (angle), temperature, and time by direct comparison and/or counting whole numbers of units.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Directly compare the duration of two events.
• Use non-standard units to compare the duration of two or more events.
• Tell time to the hour and half hour using analogue clocks.
Description of Mathematics

Duration
Comparing the duration of two events is an important part of developing an understanding of time passing. This can be done by directly comparing two activities that have common starting points, for example, singing a waiata or running around the building.

After ākonga have directly compared the duration of two events we use sand-timers, counting, and other non-standard measures to compare two or more events.

Telling time
In this unit we learn the skills to tell time to the hour and and half-hour. Telling time must enable them to:

• develop an understanding of the size of the units of time. This includes being able to estimate and measure using units of time
• read and tell the time using both analogue and digital displays.

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to ākonga and by varying the task requirements. Ways to differentiate include:

• including images, words and numbers on the chart used in session 2 to support beginning readers
• introducing quarter hour times to those ākonga who are confident with telling time to the half hour
• providing clocks (if available) that have a minute hand that moves with the hour hand (for example, to show that half-past an hour is halfway between two different hours)
• providing a selection of different clocks to see and use in the classroom, for example, a digital clock with hours, minutes and seconds displayed, alarm clocks, watches and wall clocks..

The contexts for the duration activities are based on activities that are undertaken by ākonga in your classroom so should be engaging to them. Asking ākonga to choose which activities they would like to compare provides further opportunities for their engagement. For example, they could sing a waiata, complete a hand game or do a short obstacle course.

Te reo Māori vocabulary terms such as karaka (clock), karaka mati (digital clock), karaka ringa (analogue clock), haora (hour), and meneti (minute) could be introduced in this unit and used throughout other mathematical learning.

Required Resource Materials
• Chart paper/whiteboards
• 2 skipping ropes of different length
• Large number cards (1-12)
• A large space
• Paper plates
• Cardboard hands
• Split pins
• Analogue clocks
• Pictures of clocks from home
Activity

#### Session 1: Who finishes first?

In this activity we directly compare two activities to see which takes the longest.

Resources
• Chart paper/whiteboards
1. Begin by asking ākonga which they think takes longer, making a tower with 10 cubes or hopping 10 times on each foot.
2. Write the two events on a chart/whiteboard.
3. Get two volunteers to complete the activity and discuss the findings as a class (mahi tahi model).
4. Tell ākonga that today they are going to work with a partner comparing things they do to find out which takes longer. Ask ākonga for their ideas and add these to the chart.  Ideas could include: sing a waiata or draw a picture or a rainbow, collect 3 kākāriki items or collect 3 kōwhai items, say the names of five teachers or say the names of ten friends. Encourage links to relevant learning from other curriculum areas, and to the current interests and events that are a part of the lives of your ākonga.
5. Get ākonga to work on the activities in pairs. A tuakana/teina model could work well here.
6. Share and discuss findings.

#### Session 2: Clapping time

In this activity we indirectly compare "quick" events by clapping, stamping and linking cubes.

Resources
• Chart paper/whiteboards
1. Begin by asking ākonga which they think would take them longer, writing their name or walking to the board and back to their desk.
2. Select a volunteer to complete the two events while the rest of the class time the events by clapping. Help the class keep a steady beat.
3. Record the results:
Writing my name 9 claps
Walking to the board 11 claps
4. Ask for other ideas for timing events, for example. clicking fingers, stamping, linking cubes.
5. List events that could be timed. Ask ākonga to add their ideas.
6. Ask each pair of ākonga to select one of the timing methods and use it to time the events. Give each pair a sheet of paper or whiteboard to record the times on.
7. Display and share the results.

#### Session 3 : A big clock

In this activity ākonga form a large clock which is then used to show hour times. As you need a large space for the "people clock" this may be best done outside.

Resources:
• 2 skipping ropes of different length
• Large number cards (1-12)
• A large space (potentially outside)
1. Ask ākonga to tell you all they know about clocks. This will include both digital and analogue. They could draw pictures of different clocks they know about  (for example, grandfather clocks, large clocks in your community, sundials,  watches).
2. Ask questions that focus their thinking on what an analogue clock looks like.
3. Draw a large circle with chalk  or use a pre-painted one from your kura playground.
4. Choose 12 ākonga to hold the number cards.
5. Get the rest of ākonga in the class to direct the number holders so that they form a large clock face.
6. Give another ākonga the two ropes to hold in the centre of the "clock".
7. Move the ropes so that the clock shows 3 o’clock. Ask ākonga to tell you the time.
8. Ask volunteers to move the hour hands of the clock to a time they know. Everyone else then reads the time. Draw their attention to the minute hand, and that it always points to the 12. Make sure they understand that at this time there are 0 minutes.
9. Depending on the success with hour times this activity can be easily extended to half hours.  If you move onto half hours, support ākonga to see the connection between half of a circle and the half past position on the clock.

#### Session 4: Making Clocks

In this activity ākonga create their own clocks using paper plates and then use the clock to show times during the school day.

Resources:
• Paper plates
• Cardboard hands
• Split pins
• Analogue clocks
1. Look at the analogue clocks and discuss their features:
• a large hand and a small hand fixed at the centre
• digits 1 to 12
2. Discuss ideas for positioning the numbers evenly around the clock.
3. Construct clocks fixing the hands in place with a split pin.
4. Now use the clocks to show hour and then half-hour times. Display both the analogue and digital written forms.
5. Throughout the day ask ākonga to change their clocks to show the "real" time. Do this several times on the hour and half-hour. Each time look at tell the time using both digital and analogue forms.

#### Session 5: The best times of the day.

In this activity we look at different kinds of clocks and talk about telling the time. We draw a picture of our favourite time of the day.

Resources:
• Pictures of clocks from home
• Paper plate clocks (previously constructed from Session 4)
1. Let ākonga share the pictures that they have drawn or photographs of clocks found at home or in the community.
2. Discuss the different types of clocks, for example, watches, clock radios, clocks on appliances, grandfather clocks, novelty clocks, large clocks in the community.
3. Discuss why most of us have so many clocks and when it is important to know the time.
• so we won’t be late to school
• so we won’t miss our favourite TV programme
• so that we get to our kapa haka practice on time
• so we know when our food is cooked
4. Ask ākonga to show their favourite time of the day on their paper clocks.
5. Ask ākonga to draw a picture of their favourite time. The pictures should include a clocks showing the time.
6. Share and display pictures.