The purpose of this unit is to have students design a PE game, use standard measures of length, and conduct a statistical investigation into the safety factors and the health benefits of their game.

- Understand how running a distance contributes to fitness and wellbeing.
- Create a personal benchmark for 1 metre and for 1 kilometre.
- Accurately use three measuring devices to measure a distance of more than 3 metres.
- Correctly record length measurements using abbreviations.
- Understand how many metres are in one kilometre.
- Understand that rules are designed to ensure fairness and safety.
- Create and write instructions for a PE game, giving consideration to fitness, safety and enjoyment.
- Accurately measure and record the length of a given outdoor space.
- Plan and carry out a statistical investigation, answering an investigative question and presenting findings.
- Recognise the need for small units of length measure (millimetres).

This unit of work assumes prerequisite knowledge gained at level one: the student can recognise the attribute of length, knows that measurement units are countable and that they can be partitioned and combined. When measuring length they realise that there should be no gaps or overlaps.

In these lessons the student is developing an understanding of a linear scale, and recognising that it is made up of units of equal size that are known as ‘standard units’, because they are understood by everyone.

They are learning to accurately reposition a metre ruler when required to measure a length longer than the ruler. In becoming familiar with metre and centimetre units of measure, the student is learning to express parts of metres as centimetres and to use the abbreviations m and cm when recording length measures. Students come to understand that 1000 metres are equal to 1 kilometre, and develop a personal benchmark for one metre and one kilometre measurements.

Further to the development of measurement skills and knowledge, the student participates in planning and collecting appropriate data to answer a question that has been composed with the support of the teacher (as required). The student sorts the data and presents these using a dot plot, at the same time refining key understandings of the investigative process. They can answer the investigative question and can suggest consequences of their findings.

**Associated Achievement Objectives**

Health and Physical Education

*Positive attitudes*

- Participate in and create a variety of games and activities and discuss the enjoyment that these activities can bring to themselves and others.

*Safety management*

- Identify risk and use safe practices in a range of contexts.

This unit can be differentiated by varying the scaffolding or altering the difficulty of the tasks to make the learning opportunities accessible to a range of learners. For example:

- Simplify measuring tasks by using whole metres and half metres rather than a measurement scale.
- Brainstorm ideas for fitness games with students and have them choose one of the ideas as a starting point for their work.
- Have students work in small groups or pairs with the additional support of teacher, as needed, to develop a game and carry out a statistical investigation.

The focus of this unit is designing a fitness game. Encourage students to consider their friends and classmates when planning, and to create a game that will appeal to them and be fun to play. This could be achieved by incorporating favourite elements from other games, or items of current interest.

- A set of metre rulers
- 1 centimetre cubes
- Retractable tape measures of at least 10 metres in length
- Measuring wheels
- PE equipment including small and large balls

Whilst this unit is presented as sequence of five sessions, **more sessions than this will be required between sessions 3 and 4**. It is also expected that any session may extend beyond one teaching period.

#### Session 1

*This session is about playing a familiar game and evaluating its health benefits and safety considerations. *

Students of this age may be challenged to accurately measure their pulse rate. Therefore these lessons use an alternative ‘indicator’ of the effects of exercise: that is that the intensity of worthwhile exercise should prevent you from singing, but should not prevent you from talking.

SLOs:

- Understand how running a distance contributes to fitness and wellbeing.
- Create a personal benchmark for 1 metre.
- Accurately use three measuring devices to measure a distance of more than 3 metres.
- Correctly record length measurements using abbreviations.
- Understand how many metres are in one kilometre.
- Establish a person benchmark for 1 kilometre.

__Activity 1__

Begin the lesson with singing a favourite song that has a more challenging vocal range.

__Activity __2

- Explain to the students that they will be undertaking their regular fitness run (a distance of up to half a kilometre). Ask what are the effects/benefits of this, and elicit specific statements that should include: “We get puffed”, “Our heart beat/pulse speeds up”, “It’s good for us”. In response, explain that the increase of heartbeats per minute (hpm) is because their body physically needs to circulate oxygen more quickly as they exercise. Science has shown this is good for us.

Explain that today, when they each return from their run they should (individually)*immediately*sing the first verse of the song from 1 (above), and then talk to a classmate about their run. - Have students complete their run and this task.
- Ask:
*‘Who was able to sing the song immediately?’*

*‘Who was able to talk to their classmate?’*

Count the responses for each and record these on the class chart. Discuss the results, explaining that being unable to sing immediately shows that they exercised well and their bodies will benefit.

__Activity __3

Ask, “How far did you run today?” and “How can we find out?”

Make available 1 centimetre cubes, meter rulers, a 10 metre + tape measure and a measuring wheel.

Have the students tell what they know about the metre ruler. Establish that it is called a metre ruler. It is 1 metre long. (If centimetres have already been introduced and used, have students line up 1 cm cubes along the ruler to confirm that 1 metre = 100 centimetres).

__Activity __4

Develop a personal benchmark by asking: “Who can jump 1 metre?”

Have student pairs measure a 1 metre length on the carpet/floor, marking this with chalk.

Highlight that the measure begins at 0 and ends at 100. Discuss the ‘extra’ space at each end of the ruler.

Have student pairs check if each person can each jump 1 metre.

Agree that when we think about how big 1 metre is, we can think of it as one big personal jump.

__Activity __5

- Introduce the tape measure and measuring wheel, explaining and showing how each measures 1 metre and multiples of 1 metre.

Highlight the 1 metre personal benchmark by asking:

*If the tape measure is 10 metres, about how many of your jumps is that?*

If we measured 100 metres with the wheel, about how many of your jumps is that? - Write ‘standard measure’ on the class chart and ask what it means. Elicit responses and point out that standard units have been created to allow consistency and communication of measures. We understand each other’s measurements if we use the same measures.

Explain that the standard units used in New Zealand, and in most countries in the world, are metric units. - Write centimetre, metre and kilometre on the class chart. Explain that when we write them often, we want a quick way to record them. Model cm, m and km abbreviations.

__Activity __6

Have a student model both the correct and an incorrect way to measure using a metre ruler. Highlight how to mark the beginning and end of the measure and how to correctly replace the metre ruler, when measuring a distance greater than 1 metre.

Have several students measure a length that is more than a metre, read the measure aloud, and record this on the class chart.

__Activity __7

Explain that student pairs will participate in two measuring tasks to become familiar with the measuring tools. Emphasise that their recording should use the correct abbreviations.

- Show and have students make a recording sheet, for example:

Measurement

from ... toMetre ruler Measuring tape

Have them measure at least three different lengths around the classroom, hall, or other designated area, using a metre ruler and a measuring tape, checking that they get the same measure using each tool. - Clarify the exact fitness course route, the start and end points, and set relevant boundaries. Have student pairs take turns using the measuring wheel to measure the distance around the course and to then record the result.

__Activity __8

Conclude the session by sharing measurement results and reviewing the fitness course distance. Discuss how many metres in 1 kilometre. *Estimate and calculate together* the number of times they would need to run around the fitness course to cover a 1 kilometre distance. Establish a rough benchmark for 1 kilometre. (For example, 1 kilometre is 5 times around the fitness course.)

#### Session 2

This session is about recognising that rules that address fairness and safety, help to ensure that a PE activity is enjoyable. As students design a PE activity, they learn more about accurately measuring outdoor spaces.

SLOs:

- Understand that rules are designed to ensure fairness and safety.
- Pose an investigative question.
- Create and write instructions for a PE game, giving consideration to fitness, safety and enjoyment.
- Accurately measure and record the length of a given outdoor space.

__Activity __1

Begin with a fitness run.

__Activity __2

Explain that the class is going to play a favourite PE game (for example: Tunnel ball, Scatter Ball). Together, list the rules on the class chart.

Ask: *Which of the rules are about making the game fair?* Write F beside these. Discuss that fairness makes the game more enjoyable for everyone.

Ask: *Which of the rules are about making the game safe?* Write S beside these. Discuss any anomalies. If there are no safety rules, list at least 3.

__Activity __3

Return to the class, review the * enjoyment* of the game and ask if playing the game will make them fit. Discuss why/why not. Refer to original “talk/sing measure” from 4 above.

(The response may be, “No, because it didn’t make me puff and I could sing.”)

Review the list of rules and confirm the fairness (F) and safety (S) decisions made earlier.

Highlight the importance of games and activities being

**safe and enjoyable**. Ask if any other

*rules should be added and why.*

**safety**__Activity __4

- List on the class chart, the words ‘enjoyment, fitness and safety’.
- Suggest that student pairs will create their own games/activities and that the class will conduct an investigation. Through discussion, lead students to pose an investigative question. For example:

‘Can we design a game or activity that keeps us?’**fit, is enjoyable and is safe**

Record this on the class chart/modeling book. - Explain that students will be using an outdoor space with suitable boundaries, for example, the school tennis courts. Large balls and small balls will be made available. (Make available other equipment, for example hockey sticks, if skills have been taught.)
- Clarify the task. Students will work in pairs or small groups to:
- Measure and record the size of the designated outdoor space (using skills learned in Session 1.)
- Invent a
*simple*team game or activity that the class can play. - Write down clear instructions and rules, checking for safety and fairness.

- Set time limits and clarify expectations. Have students complete the task.

__Activity __5

Have two student pairs swap game instructions. Have them read, critique, seek clarification and suggest refinements or improvements to the other’s game design.

Give time for these adjustments to be made.

__Activity __6

Review pair measurements for the outdoor space. (Tennis courts are 23.77m x 8.23m) Review 1000m = 1 km. Estimate together the number of times the length of the court would need to be run to achieve the length of 1 kilometre. (eg. Round up to 25m. 25m x 40 = 1000m) Together calculate the number of lengths of the tennis court = 1km.

Students may use this as a 1 kilometre benchmark.

#### Session 3

This session is about creating a simple questionnaire to evaluate each pair’s activity, and learning about dot plots.

SLOs:

- Plan data collection.
- Collect data by trialling and evaluating an activity on its fitness, safety and enjoyment values.

__Activity __1

Begin with a fitness run.

__Activity __2

- Review the investigation question recorded on the chart in Session 2.

Ask the students how they should gather the data to answer the question. Guide discussion and agree on a simple evaluation form to be completed by the class after playing each pair-lead activity. For example:

*The name of the game: ________________________________*

Circle for each: 1 (not so good) 2, 3, 4 or 5 (excellent),

Enjoyment: 1 2 3 4 5

Fitness: 1 2 3 4 5

Safety: 1 2 3 4 5 - Print off the evaluation or have students copy this and practice using it by completing an evaluation for the game played in Session 2: 2 and 3.

__Activity __3

*Together collate* and present the data using three dot plots. For example:

Discuss the dot plot features, the results, and draw conclusions.

__Activity __4

For the remainder of the session, and for sessions to follow, have students participate in and evaluate each other’s games. Each pair of students will collect the data for their game to analyse and present in Session 4.

#### Session 4

This session is about student pairs sorting the data from their classmate’s evaluations of their activity and presenting the findings.

SLOs:

- Sort and display category data.
- Answer an investigative question.

__Activity __1

Begin with a fitness run.

__Activity __2

Make available pencils, paper, and sets of data for each pair activity.

Have students work in pairs to sort their data and to discuss their findings. Each student should create three dot plots to present their data, record their own findings and should answer the investigative question in their own way.

As students work, have them record on a small poster, their knowledge of centimetres, metres and kilometres, the relationship between them, and explain why we have standard measures.

#### Session 5

This session is about communicating investigation findings to others and sharing their understanding of standard measures of length.

SLOs:

- Present findings.
- Review and reflect on the investigative process.
- Review and reflect upon measurement learning.
- Discuss the need for small units of length measure and introduce millimetres.

__Activity __1

Begin with a fitness run.

__Activity __2

Have each student present to a partner (not the person with whom they developed the game) their dot plots, their findings, and the measurement posters. Have them critique each other’s work and give feedback.

__Activity __3

- Have selected students communicate the findings about their game with the class.
- Together, as a class:
- Summarise on the class chart conclusions about safety, enjoyment, and fitness.
- Reflect on the investigation process and suggest ways it could have been improved.

__Activity __4

Arrange the length measurement tools in front of the students.

Have individual students share their learning about each of the tools.

Ask which tool would be used to measure small lengths.

Introduce the millimetre measure for tiny lengths.

Conclude by reviewing personal benchmarks for (1cm), 1m and 1km.

Dear parents and whānau,

In mathematics we have been measuring distances and learning about metres and kilometres in particular. Ask your child to show how big a centimetre and a metre is, and to tell you about how big a kilometre is.

Please take opportunities to talk about and use these measurements: for example, measure and mark in pencil on a door frame, the height in metres and centimetres of each family member, or, when you are next travelling in the car, point out the speedometer and explain to your child how you know when the car has travelled 1 kilometre.

Thank you.