## Money and Percentage

Purpose

In this unit tasks and activities highlight terms and concepts associated with money and percentages. Money and percentages are explored in a variety of real life contexts. This unit is concerned with applications of percentages more than learning how to calculate percentages. For a unit on calculating percentages try Getting Percentible.

Achievement Objectives
NA5-3: Understand operations on fractions, decimals, percentages, and integers.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Explain the use of percentages in day to day living.
• Explain concepts such as GST, commission, discount, bonus, net pay, gross pay, PAYE and use these concepts in applied problems.
Required Resource Materials
Activity

#### List of Copymasters accompanying this unit:

• Percentage worksheet: This goes over skills from level 4 and may be used to get students started.
• Newspapers Money and Percentages
• Some Terms Defined: An information sheet which explains some relevant terms (could be photocopied for student work stations).
• Shopping at the Mall: This exercise could be used as an assessment for processes.
• Earning Money: This exercise looks at wages, and PAYE.
• Investing Savings: An investigation looking at the effects of compound interest
• GST: Questions concerning GST in New Zealand
• Commission and Salaries: Questions and investigation, commission versus salary.

For information about GST in New Zealand click on the site below to enter the NZ GST Homepage or use the quick reference summary sheet that accompanies this unit.  Up-to date information about PAYE is also available at:  http://www.ird.govt.nz.
http://www.ird.govt.nz/gst/

#### Teaching sequence

This unit explores the use of percentages in real-world contexts. It assumes students know how to calculate percentages.

#### Getting Started

Revision of percentages.

1. Introduce the topic of percentages. Depending on your class this may involve a quick brainstorming session, an extended revision, or one or two directed questions.

Two of the most important things to realise and understand when working with percentages are:

• Percent (%) means per 100 (per century), or a fraction with the number over 100, this can be thought of by looking at the symbol. Explain that it derives from the fraction over 100, and is made up of the / and the 00 from this fraction.
• ‘Of’ means ‘multiplied by’.  20% of 50 means 20% times 50, and since from (1) above we know that % means per 100 or a fraction over 100, 20% of 50 means 20/100 times 50, or 1000/100, which is 10.
1. Give students the Percentage worksheet. This contains a mixture of types of questions involving percentages and will give you some idea of your class’s strengths and weaknesses. The worksheet could be used either as an individual activity, or students could work in pairs. Students who need assistance could be paired with more able students or could stay and work through some examples as a group with the teacher.
2. Gather the class back together and go over the answers to ensure that everyone understands how to work them out.
3. Newspapers, Money and Percentages
4. The aim of this activity is to revise skills and develop an awareness of the role of percentages/money in every day life. It may be appropriate to give Some Terms Defined copymaster at this stage.
1. Students could be in groups of up to 4 for this task or it could be a whole class activity.
2. Each group/pair/individual will need access to a newspaper and a copy of Newspapers Money and Percentages.
 Newspapers, Money and Percentages 1.  Look through your newspaper and find at least five places where money and/or percentages are used to communicate with the public. Write down what you find. 2.  Work out approximately what percentage of your paper is used for advertising. Describe your method. Do this for at least three days’ papers. 3.  Estimate the percentage used for local news and the percentage used for overseas news. Do this for at least three days’ papers. 4.  Write up your results and be ready to present them to the class on Friday.
1. Explain to the students that they will have the week to research the task and will be given some time to write it up but must be ready to present their findings to the class on Friday.
2. Allow some time to discuss the task and provide direction and support as to the form the results are to be presented in. There is the opportunity to develop some skills of statistical data presentation (especially pie charts), or the students could just write down the percentages they find.

#### Exploring

Over the next 3-4 sessions the students work on tasks involving money and percentages in daily life. These tasks aim to build on earlier skills and further develop an awareness of the role of percentages and money in every day life.

1. Go over the copymaster Some Terms Defined. This is an information sheet which explains some relevant terms (could be photocopied for student work stations).
2. The question sheets for the five tasks have been designed so that they can be used in a variety of ways. You may wish to print and laminate them and use them in a workstation format with different groups working on different tasks. Alternatively, you may prefer to have a copy for individual students or groups of students to work from.
3. Although the questions are fairly self explanatory you may wish to go over each with the class before they split up to work on them. You will need to be available to help with individual enquiries while students are working.
4. The five tasks cover different areas in which percentages and money may be used:
• Shopping at the Mall: This exercise looks at the finances of three girls at the mall.
• Earning Money: This exercise looks at wages, and PAYE.
• Investing Savings: An investigation looking at the effects of compound interest
• GST: Questions concerning GST in New Zealand
• Commission and Salaries: Questions and investigation, commission versus salary.
1. Allow some time in each lesson to refer to the week’s newspaper research task. Ask students what they have found, check on their methodology, and provide support as required. Remind them that they will have to report their findings on Friday. Some time could be allocated in class to writing up.

#### Reflecting

This final session is to be used to tie together the previous sessions in the unit, and to report back on the class’s newspaper investigations.

Get several groups to share their results with the class.

Discuss whether they found the same things. What are possible reasons for any differences? Whose method of estimating percentages is most accurate? Whose is easiest?

Ask if any of the other groups did it differently. Share their findings.

Some groups may wish to share how they worked on some of the in class tasks.

Attachments