Planning notes

This plan is a starting point for planning a mathematics and statistics teaching programme for a term. The resources listed cover about 50% of your teaching time. Further resources need to be added to meet the specific learning needs of your class, to support your local curriculum and to provide sufficient teaching for a full term.

Level One

Statistics

Units of Work

In this unit we explore ways to pose and answer investigative questions about our favourites by gathering and analysing data and discussing the results.

Level One

Number and Algebra

Units of Work

In this unit of work we link the development of skip-counting patterns to bars on a relationship graph. We also plot our skip-counting patterns on a hundreds board.

Level One

Number and Algebra

Units of Work

The purpose of this unit of five lessons is to develop the algebraic understanding that the equals symbol, = , indicates a relationship of equivalence between two amounts.

Level One

Geometry and Measurement

Units of Work

In this unit students explore patterns involving transformations of shapes. Students make and identify patterns that involve translation, reflection, and rotation. They make their own patterns and pictures to show the transformations, and discuss with others how they included the different...

Level One

Integrated

Units of Work

This unit builds the learning of mathematics around celebrations of Matariki, the Māori New Year. The sessions provide meaningful contexts that highlight Māori culture and provide powerful learning opportunities that connect different strands of mathematics.

Printed from https://nzmaths.co.nz/user/75803/planning-space/late-level-1-plan-term-2 at 12:01pm on the 29th January 2022

## I Like Trucks

In this unit we explore ways to pose and answer investigative questions about our favourites by gathering and analysing data and discussing the results.

In this unit the students begin by brainstorming areas for investigation. Young students' areas of interest are likely to focus on themselves and the activities that they are engaged in. Using the students and their interests is a recurring technique used in junior classes. It provides students with contexts that are meaningful and motivating. With the teacher investigative questions are posed about categorical data.

In this unit we use favourites as the theme for the investigations. Much of the data collected at level one will be real objects. In this unit we begin by posing an investigative question about our favourite toys. Once the data (toys) are collected together they can be sorted into categories ready for display. It is important that the students are involved in deciding how to sort the objects. We then draw pictures of other favourites and use them to make displays.

Once more we stress the importance of letting the students decide how to sort and display the data. In this unit we photocopy the drawings so that each pair of students gets the opportunity to make decisions about how the data should be sorted and displayed. The follow-up discussion of the displays will involve the students making statements about the number of objects in each of the categories. In this unit we do not attempt to get the students to formalise their displays into pictographs. However the thinking carried out in this unit means that the students would be ready to use pictographs in future statistics units.

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to support students include:

The context, about favourites, for this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students by selecting favourites of interest to your students.

Getting StartedLet’s try to find out about our favourite toys. The investigative question we are exploring is "What are the favourite toys of the children in our class?"Do any of you have toys that could belong with this one? Is there some way that your toy is like this one? How does your toy belong? Who has one that doesn’t belong? Why not?Four of us brought dolls or action men. Three of us brought balls to kick. Six of us brought toys with wheels. Two of us brought soft animals etcLet’s think about some other favourites that we can investigative with the class this week.Possible favourites include: food, colour, drink, number, animal.

poseinvestigative questions to explore. For example: What are the favourite foods of the children in our class? What colours do Room 30 students like best? What are our class’s favourite numbers? What animals do the children in Room 2 have as favourites?posesurvey questions for each of the investigative questions. For example: What is your favourite food? What colour do you like the best? What number is your favourite? What is your favourite animal?ExploringIn preparation for the next three days, make a set of picture sheets for each pair by photocopying the answers (8 per sheet of A4). It is worth taking the time to make copies as it gives everyone the opportunity to sort and display the data.

Can you see your drawing?Do you see any that are like yours?Which ones are different to yours?askquestions that focus on the approach they are taking to sort the pictures:How are you sorting the pictures?How many categories or groups have you got?

Is it easy to decide where to put the pictures? Why/Why not?

Askquestions, such as in point 10 above, and 2, 3, and 4 below, and offer models of appropriate language to support the students to effectively talk about the process of making their display and what is presented on it.ReflectingWe begin today’s session by getting the students to select one of their favourites investigations to display on the classroom walls.

Let's look at all the great statistical investigations that we did this week.Can you tell us what your display is saying about the colours that Room 30 students like best.How many chose that favourite (e.g. colour)?Which things are favourites? How do you know? How does your display show that?Dear parents and whānau,

This week in mathematics and statistics we are exploring ways to pose and answer investigative questions about our favourites by gathering and analysing data and discussing the results. One of our activities involves us investigating our class and families favourite type of fruit. To help us with this activity we would like everyone in your home to draw us a picture of their favourite fruit. Your child will then add this toour display that shows the favourite fruits. We are answering the investigative question "What are the favourite fruits of our class and their families?"

## Beetle Wheels

In this unit of work we link the development of skip-counting patterns to bars on a relationship graph. We also plot our skip-counting patterns on a hundreds board.

In this unit we look at skip-counting patterns. These are patterns obtained by adding the same, constant, number to make the next number every time. So the difference between any two terms in a skip-counting pattern is the same. This is a good exercise to help reinforce the various concepts relating to pattern. In particular, it helps us to understand the idea of a recurrence relation between consecutive terms.

Skip-counting patterns are also called arithmetic progressions. In secondary school, expressions for both the general term of an arithmetic progression and the sum of all of the numbers in the progression are found.

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to differentiate the tasks include:

Exploringpart of the unit ask the students to extend the pattern to 10 or more skips.The contexts for this skip patterns used in this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students. For example in the

Exploringpart of the unit:## Getting Started

Today we explore the pattern of 4s by counting the number of wheels on cars. We then use this information to build a relationship graph.

How many wheels does a beetle have?How many wheels are there on 2 beetles?How did you work that out?

What can you tell me about this chart?Share ideas. Encourage the students to focus on the relationship between the number of cars and the number of wheels.

## Exploring

Over the next 2-3 days, the students work in pairs to explore the number patterns of other skip-counts. At the end of each session the students share their charts with the rest of the class.

## Reflecting

In today’s session we use calculators to extend our skip-counting into the hundreds. We record our patterns on a hundreds chart.

Which number will be next?How do you know?

Dear parents and whānau,

This week in maths we have been looking at skip-counting patterns and the charts that can be made from them.

Your child will be able to explain to you exactly what we did in class. Here is a chart made from a skip-counting pattern. Talk with your child about what the next number in the pattern will be. Put that number onto the chart. Discuss with your child how the pattern would continue.

Try to think of how that pattern might describe something in your family. Could you make a similar chart of another number pattern that you can both think of.

This is an important part of maths. Thank you for your help.

## Figure it Out Links

A link from the Figure It Out series which you may find useful is:

Link, Algebra, Book One, Which Wheels Where? Page 20.

## Equality and equations

The purpose of this unit of five lessons is to develop the algebraic understanding that the equals symbol, = , indicates a relationship of equivalence between two amounts.

expressionsinvolving the operations of addition and subtraction.This sequence of lessons lays a fundamental and important foundation for students to be able to read, write and

understand an equation.The essence of an equation is that it is a statement of a

relationshipbetween two amounts. This relationship is a significant one of equivalence. The understanding that the amounts on either side of the equals sign are equal in value, is essential if students are to experience success in algebra in particular, and in mathematics in general, into the future.The most common misunderstanding is when students develop a process view of an equation as a procedure to follow to get an answer, rather than a structural or relational view of equivalence.

Students should be immersed in a range of experiences that support them to explore the concept of equivalence and balance. During these experiences, the teacher must carefully choose the language they use and model. As equations are introduced, recorded, read and interpreted, words and phrases such as ‘has the same value as’, ‘is the same as’, ‘is equal to’ and ‘ is equivalent to’, rather than ‘makes’, or ‘gives an answer of ’, become very important. It is interesting to note that the word ‘equals’, on its own, has subtly become more synonymous with ‘makes’ or ‘gives an answer’, rather than giving the message of equivalence that it should.

When posing problems that position the unknown amount at the beginning or in the middle of an equation, we are challenging the student to explore the relationship statement and the operations from a different perspective. This also occurs when students are asked to find ‘different names’ for the same amount.

Students should have opportunities to both read and respond to equations, and to record them, having interpreted a number problem expressed in words. In developing the ‘balance’ view of an equation, students will understand the equality relationship expressed in an equation such as 6 = 6, rather than being perplexed by the fact that there is no number problem to ‘answer’. Students will also readily understand relationships expressed in equations such as 4 + 2 = 1 + 5, rather than developing an expectation that a single ‘answer’ will follow the = symbol. Instead of expressing solutions in the arithmetic ‘voice’ of ‘problem, calculation and answer’, it is important in early algebra work, for students to explain their solutions in words that make the equivalence relationship explicit.

Links to the Number FrameworkCounting all (Stages 2 – 3)

Counting on (Stage 4)

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to differentiate the tasks include:

The contexts used in the word problems in this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students. For example:

These learning experiences use numbers in the range from 1 to 20, however the numbers in the problems and the learning experiences should be adapted, as appropriate, for the students.

Session 1SLOs:

Activity 1Jack and the Beanstalk. Ask who has planted or picked beans. Read the story. Explain that when the beanstalk is chopped to the ground, Jack picks handfuls of beans from it, some of which are bright green and others dark green. Unfortunately, they are no longer ‘magic’.studentsrecord beside them, in words and number expressions, what they see. For example:three and four beans (3 + 4)

two plus five beans (2 + 5)

Pose subtraction scenarios and have students record their number expressions.

For example:

“Jack has eight beans and drops four.” (8 - 4)

“Jack has 6 beans and drops 1.” (6 - 1)

Activity 2different coloured beans. Have students work in pairs.twoPose the problem:

“Jack wants to give away some packets of beans. He decides he’ll put six in each packet. He puts some beans of each colour into each packet and writes on the outside of the packet how many there are of each colour."Write 6 on the class chart.

Demonstrate. For example:

Put 2 bright green and four dark green beans into one envelope and write 2 + 4 in pencil on the outside.

Tell the students that they should take turns to put the beans into the packets and to write on the outside.

6

is the same amount as:Have students take turns to record their number expressions beside this.

6

is the same as: 5 + 1, 4 + 2, 3 + 3, 2 + 4, 1 + 5Read these together using the language of, “is the same as.”

Ask whether it would be

fairfor Jack to give these to his friends. (Yes, because they would be getting thesameamount. They would be getting anequalamount.)Activity 3‘equal’on the chart.Have students tell you what ‘equal’ means. Brainstorm ideas and record these.

6

is the same (amount) as: 5 + 1, 4 + 2, 3 + 3, 2 + 4, 1 + 56

is equal to: 5 + 1, 4 + 2, 3 + 3, 2 + 4, 1 + 5Ask if students know how to write “is equal to” using a symbol. Introduce

=.Model writing 6 = 5 + 1.

Activity 4Explain that Jack needs packets with these different amounts. Demonstrate, using a ‘six packet’, that each envelope must have the “number equals story” on it.

equation, highlighting that 6 = 5 + 1 (for example) is called anequation because it uses the = sign to show that both amounts are the same.Ask if they can see part of the word ‘equals’ in the wordequation.Activity 5Conclude the session by reviewing =,

equalsand its meaning and the meaning of the wordequation. Have students explain these, and record what they say.Session 2SLO:

Activity 1equal,equationand the symbol=, recorded on the class chart in Session 1.Record a ‘six’ equation and read it in different ways together. For example:

6 = 5 + 1, “six is equal to five plus one”, “six is the same as five plus one”.

Highlight the fact that each of the packets in the 6 container have an

equalorsameamount.Have students in pairs choose one of the containers (you may need to make multiples of each container depending on class size).

Students begin by taking turns to

read aloudto their partner, in thetwo waysmodeled in Step 1 (above), an equation on an envelope selected from the container. They should return these once read.They should take two packets at a time, check that they have exactly

the same amountand record what they find on their “stocktaking sheet” like this:Students with containers 3 and 4 in particular, will accomplish this quickly.

Activity 2Jack and the Beanstalk.Place in front of the students the cardboard ‘tickets’ and the plastic pegs.

Pose the task:

“Jack is going to have a bean stall. He needs‘pegged pairs’with ten beans altogether in each. We are going to help him. We need to make labels to show the contents, or what's inside."Elicit from the students that by using one packet from each of their containers, they will have ten beans. If necessary, students can explore this idea and check, using their fingers, showing, for example: 10 = 7 fingers (up) and 3 fingers (down).

Write an equation using the number on each of the containers.We say "7 beans plus 3 beans equals 10 beans"and we write 7 + 3 = 10Write each of theexpressionswritten on each envelope. (The number of each colour in each envelope)We say:

"This envelope has 5 dark and 2 light and this envelope has 1 dark and 2 light. Altogether that equals 10. "We write: 5 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 10Tip out the beans and write the number of each of the colours.We say" There are 6 dark beans and 4 light beans and that is 10 beans altogether."We write: 6 + 4 = 10Review the words,

equal,equationand the symbol=, recorded on the class chart in Step 1, highlighting the language of ‘is equal to’ and ‘is the same as’ and that all the equations written aredifferent names forten.Session 3SLOs:

Activity 1language of ‘same, level, equal, balance, not tipped.’Again,

recordand‘test’student ideas, trying different combinations of pegged pairs. For example:5 + 5 = 6 + 4

6 + 4 = 7 + 3

Ask why the results are recorded using =.

Elicit reasons such as ,”equals shows that they are the same”, “equals shows that they balance”, “equals shows that both amounts have the same value (10)” , “equals means is the same as”.

Activity 2Remove the packet of 4 beans, leaving 6 only on one side. Discuss the tipped scales and how to record the removal of the 4 beans.

Record suggestions. For example:

5 + 5 is not the same as 10 – 4

5 + 5 is not equal to 10 – 4

10 is not equal to 6

Accept, ‘put 4 back in again’, but work to elicit, ‘

take 4 away from the other side.’Have a student remove 4 beans from one of the 5 bean envelopes (example above), saying how many are remaining in the envelope (1). Return it to the scales.

Record suggestions that describe what has happened now the balance is restored. For example:

5 + 5 - 4 is equal to 10 – 4

10 - 4 is the same as 10 – 4

10 – 4 = 10 – 4

6 = 6

As equations are recorded, have students explain or demonstrate, using the materials, exactly what is happening. Together reach the conclusion: if you take away the same amount from each ‘side’ or pan, the scales will still balance.

Have student pairs combine the beans from the pegged pairs into single envelopes of ten beans, writing 10 on each.

Have students work in pairs with envelopes of ten beans, some spare beans, paper to record equations and a set of balance scales.

Have students undertake the following tasks.

Student Two guesses how many were removed, removes this number from the other envelope, ‘secretly’ records the equation, for example 10 – 5 = 5, and returns it to the scales. They look carefully to check to see if the scales balance. If the scales do not balance, Student Two repeats their turn with another amount. When the scales do balance, both students share their final equations and check the amount in each envelope. Both students finally record the balance, for example, 7 = 7.

The students reverse rolls.

Student One places one ten envelope and a mixture of both colours of beans into one pan to make a number between ten and twenty. The student records the equation: for example, 10 + 2 + 3 = 15.

Student Two places one ten envelope and a mixture of both colours of beans into the other pan. The two-bean mix must be a different combination, but the total must balance the scales (in this case must equal 15). This student records their equation: for example, 10 + 1 + 4 = 15.

Both students then record what they can see in

bothpans.10 + 2 + 3 = 10 + 1 + 4

15 = 15

It is important to highlight the

balanced nature of the equations.Elicit from the students, ‘an equation islike a thing that balances.’Session 4SLOs:

Activity 1Explain that Jack, of

Jack and the Beanstalkfame, has some problems for the students to solve and that they may want to use the equipment to help them.Distribute a copy of Attachment 1 to each student. Read through the problems together.

Highlight that each student will be

writing equations for each problem.Students should choose whether to work on the problems alone or with a partner however, each student should complete their own recording sheet.

Session 5SLOs:

justify the choice.Activity 1Introduce the

game. (Attachment 2)True/False(Purpose: To recognise when amounts are equal or not equal.)

Model a ‘true’ equation such as 1 + 3 = 2 + 2, highlighting the fact that the amount on both sides are the same or equal to each other. Each expression is equal to 4. Model a ‘false’ equation such as 1 + 3 = 3 + 2, highlighting the fact that both sides are not the same and not equal to each other. 4 is not equal to 5. This is false (not true).

Students play in pairs. They shuffle the playing cards and deal 10 to each player. The remainder of cards is placed in a pile, face down, handy to both players.

The aim of the game is to be the first person to have an equal number of true and false equations (five of each).

As each player turns over their cards, they sort them into true and false groups, face up in front of themselves. If they have more of one group than the other, they continue to take cards from the top of the pile, till the number of their true and false cards is equal.

The first player to have equal numbers of true and false cards calls, “Stop!”

This caller must explain to their partner, for each of their decisions, how they know they are correct in their true/false decisions. They can use beans to support their explanation.

The game begins again. The winner is the person who wins the most of three games.

Activity 2Students play

snap, using cards from Attachment 3.Same Name(Purpose: To recognise when amounts are equivalent (or not equivalent) and to give the ‘number name’ for the ‘same name’ expressions.)

How to play:

Student pairs shuffle the cards and deal all cards so each student has an equal number of cards. These are placed in a pile, face down in front of each student. Student One turns over the top card and places it, face up, between both students. Student Two does the same, placing their card on top of their partner’s card. If the two expressions have equal value, either student calls

, states the number that the expression represents, and the correct equation using either ‘is equal to’ or ‘is the same as’. For example:Same Name2 + 3 is placed on top of 4 + 1.

“Same name! Five! Two plus three

is equal tofour plus one.” or“Two plus three

is the same asfour plus one.”The caller collects the card pile, records the equation, 5 = 2 + 3 = 4 + 1 on their scoring paper, and the game begins again, with the winner of this round placing the first card.

The student who does not call, can challenge the caller if they believe the “name” is not true for either or both expressions. If they are correct, they collect the pile and record the correct equation. The original caller must erase the incorrect equation.

The game finishes when one student has all the cards, or when one student has recorded ten ‘same name’ equations.

Activity 3Conclude this session by discussing learning from the games, and reviewing ideas recorded on the class chart over five sessions.

Dear parents and whānau,

In maths this week the students have been learning how to read and write addition and subtraction equations. The algebra focus has been on helping the students to understand that equals (=) means “is equal to” or “has the same value as”, rather than being a sign that indicates “the answer”.

They have been playing the

Same Name Gamein class, so your child will be able to show you how to play. It would be helpful if you can use the phrases “is equal to” or “is the same as”, as you play the game together.Thank you.

## Making Patterns

In this unit students explore patterns involving transformations of shapes. Students make and identify patterns that involve translation, reflection, and rotation. They make their own patterns and pictures to show the transformations, and discuss with others how they included the different transformation elements.

Translations (slides), reflections (flips), and rotations (turns) are explored in this unit.

Translations are slides or shifts of a shape along a line.

Reflections are flips of a shape to make an image as though it is reflected in a mirror.

Rotations are turns, so when an shape is turned about a point, either inside or outside of itself, the image is a rotation of the original shape. This unit uses examples where the rotation happens around the centre point of an shape.

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to make the tasks more accessible include:

The objects and pictures used in this unit can be changes to suit the interests and experiences of your students. For example, local flowers and pictures of native insects and butterflies are likely to be more engaging than generic pictures of flowers and butterflies. You could also incorporate an outdoor walk where students look for examples of translations, reflections and rotations.

## Session 1

In this session students make patterns that show translations.

what picture is repeated on the paper to make a pattern?Are the pictures the same each time?(Yes)How are the pictures the same?(shape, size, orientation, colour)## Session 2

In this session students make patterns that show reflections.

## Session 3

In this session students make patterns that show rotations.

## Sessions 4 and 5

In these sessions students make an underwater sea picture that shows translation, reflection and rotation.

Which animal shows reflection?(Octopus)How else could you show reflection in your picture?(Put two fish nose to nose.)How could you show translation in your picture?(Use 2 or more of the same animal and orientate them the same way.)How could you show rotation in your picture?(Use 2 of more sea stars and rotate each one.)Dear Family and Whānau,

This week we have been making patterns. Your child is going to be a Pattern Detective and look for patterns at home that show translations (a picture or pattern that repeats to make a pattern) or rotations ( a picture or pattern that repeats around in a circle). One place to look for these is in wallpaper or tiling. Please ask them to explain what is happening in the patterns they find.

## Matariki - Level 1

This unit builds the learning of mathematics around celebrations of Matariki, the Māori New Year. The sessions provide meaningful contexts that highlight Māori culture and provide powerful learning opportunities that connect different strands of mathematics.

In this unit the students will apply many different mathematical and statistical ideas (see specific learning outcomes). They apply the properties of symmetry, that is the features of a shape that change and remain invariant under translation, reflection and rotation.

Students also apply simple probability. For example, given this set of cards, what is the chance of getting a bright star if you choose one card at random? Random means that each card has the same chance of selection.

The set of all possible outcomes contains four possibilities. Two of those possible outcomes are selecting a bright star card. The chance of getting a bright star are two out of four or one half. There is a one quarter chance of getting a fuzzy star and the same chance of getting a rainy cloud.

Lesson OneWhat shape is a star?Today we are going to make some stars to display using shapes.Other Activities with StarsCreating stars by envelopesHow do you know that you have got all the diagonals? (Students might notice that the same number of diagonals come from each corner)Does the star have mirror lines? How do you know?## Lesson Two

In this lesson your students explore family trees, working out the number of people in their direct whakapapa. Thinking about our relatives who are no longer with us, or have just arrived, is a traditional part of Matariki, the Māori New Year. According to legend Matariki is the time when Taramainuku, captain of Te Waka of Rangi, and gatherer of souls, releases the souls of the departed from the great net. The souls ascend into the sky to become stars.

How many parents (matua) do you have?That question needs to be treated sensitively but the focus is on biological parents, usually a father and mother. You might personalise the answer by telling your students the names of your mother and father. Draw a diagram like this:

My mother and father had parents too. What are your parent’s parents called?How many grandparents (koroua) do you have?Students may have different ways to establish the number of grandparents, such as just knowing, visualising the tree and counting in ones, or doubling (double two),

What do we call your grandparent’s parents? (Great grandparents, koroua rangatira)Nowadays, many students will still have living great grandparents. You might personalise the idea using your whakapapa.

What do we call the parents of your Great Grandparents?Now I want you to solve this problem. How many Great Great Grandparents do you have?Now let’s just think about our parents. If three children in this class invited their parents along, how many parents would that be?Use the context as a vehicle for introducing even numbers (multiples of two), Act out three children getting their parents (other students) and bringing them to school. Change the number of students and work out the total number of parents. Find a way to highlight the numbers that come up, such as shading the numbers on a virtual Hundreds Board.

Can anyone see a pattern in the numbers of parents?Students might notice that even numbers occur in the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 columns of the hundreds board.

If everyone in this class brought their parents along, how many parents would that be?Ten parents came along. How many students brought them?How big would our class be if 100 parents came along?If every student in another class brought two parents along, could there be 54 parents? What about 53 parents? Etc.If students in our class brought all their Grandparents along, how many Grandparents would that be?If we had to provide Matariki celebration for our Grandparents, what food and drink would we need?How much of each food and drink would we need?## Lesson Three

Matariki is a time for cultural activities, such as story-telling, music, and games. Titi Rakau is a traditional game that involves hitting and throwing sticks, usually to a rhythmic chant. It was used to enhance the hand-eye co-ordination of children and warriors. Rakau can be used as a vehicle for fractions and musical notation, as well as physical co-ordination. You can make the tasks below as simple or as difficult as you like.

What fractions has the bar been broken into? (Quarters)Each of these notes (crotchet) is one quarter of a bar in this music.4/4time signature. That means there are four crochet (quarter) beats to the bar. This timing is very common in popular music. “Tahi” released by Moana and the Moa Hunters in 1994 is a good example that is easily found online. Ask your students to clap in steady 1, 2, 3, 4, … time with a consistent time between claps as the music plays.4/4time. This can be changed to beat one on the ground, and beat two ‘clapping’ the sticks together in the air, beat three on the ground, and beat four in the air, etc.4/4time the rest is for one beat. So the rhythm is ‘clap, clap, clap, rest, clap, clap, clap, rest,…” as is used in “We will rock you,” by Queen. Slide three has a bar with two rests. See if the students can maintain that rhythm.4/4time. See if students can manage the two different rhythms, including the beamed (joined) quavers. Copymaster Four can be made into cards, or cut out as is, to create different rhythmic bars in4/4time. Note that the semibreve (circular note) denotes the whole of four beats, and the minim (stemmed hollow note) denotes one half of a bar. A minim is equivalent to two crochets.The popular chant associated with Ti Rakau is E Papa Waiari is in 6/8 time meaning there are six quaver beats to a bar. If you watch a video of a performance with Rakau the sticks are often hit on the ground on the first and fourth beats, or clicked together on the second, third, fifth and sixth beats.

## Lesson Four

The rising of Matariki, in late May or June, signals to Māori that it is the start of a new year. It is appropriate for students to reflect on the passage of time. For young students there are important landmarks in the development of time, including:

Cooking in a hangiIn the first part of the lesson students work with the first two ideas, recalling the past and anticipating the future.

Watch carefully. At the end of the video I will ask you about how to make a hangi.I want you to put the pictures in the order that they happened. Put them in a line. Be ready to explain why you put the pictures in that order.Why does this happenbeforethis?Why does this happenafterthis?What might have happenedbeforethe hole was dug?What might have happenedafterthe food was served?Chances of a good yearIn former times Tohunga, wise people of the village, looked at the sky before dawn to watch the rising of Matariki. They used the clarity of the stars to predict what the new year would bring. A clear sky with the stars of Matariki shining brightly signalled a good season for weather and the growing and harvesting of crops. A cloudy sky signalled bad luck.

If you saw this what would you predict?There will be plenty of rain but not too much, and the crops will grow well.It is going to be a bit windy.There will be lots of food in the rivers, lakes and sea.## Lesson Five

This lesson involves making rewena paraoa (potato) bread. The process of making it takes three stages; preparing the ‘bug’, mixing and baking, then serving. Therefore, it is not a continuous lesson. Preparation and serving food are important activities for Matariki celebrations.

In the next three days we are going to make rewena bread from potatoes (paraoa). Why is the bread you buy at the supermarket so light and fluffy?2 cups of flour

1 teaspoon of sugar

Up to one cup of luke-warm water (as needed to maintain a paste-like consistency)

How many slices should we make?How thick will the slices be?Howmany cuts will we make?Family and whānau,

This week we have been exploring shapes and sequencing events. Ask your child to find examples of shapes such as triangle, square, hexagon and trapezium around the house. Ask them about how the shapes were used to make stars in class. To extend the work we have been doing on sequencing events, when you are engaging in activities at home that have a defined sequence, ask your child questions to explore before and after actions, for example why does this happen before this? What might happen after we have done this?