## Early level 1 plan (term 3)

Planning notes
This plan is a starting point for planning a mathematics and statistics teaching programme for a term. The resources listed cover about 50% of your teaching time. Further resources need to be added to meet the specific learning needs of your class, to support your local curriculum and to provide sufficient teaching for a full term.

## Pattern Matching

Level One
Geometry and Measurement
Units of Work
In this unit students explore lines of symmetry in pictures, shapes and patterns and use their own words to describe the symmetry.
• Identify lines of symmetry in objects.
• Make patterns which have line symmetry.
• Describe line symmetry in their own words.

## Knowing five

Level One
Number and Algebra
Units of Work
The purpose of this unit is to lay the foundation for an understanding of grouping and to make connections between the different grouping arrangements for five and the symbolic recording associated with these.
• Quickly recognise patterns within and for five.
• Record an expression, using ‘and’, the symbol +, and 0.
• Use the equals = symbol and understand that is means ‘is the same as’.
• Record word stories and equations that describe a situation.
• Record an unknown using ☐ in addition equations.
• Re...

## Using five

Level One
Number and Algebra
Units of Work
The purpose of this unit is to build upon the knowledge students have of combining and separating groupings to five and to use this as a building block to knowing combinations within and up to ten.
• Instantly recognise and describe a group of five in multiple representations of numbers within and to ten.
• Apply and record the operation of addition for groupings within ten.
• Understand the language of subtraction and apply the operation of subtraction to groupings within ten.
• Make...

## Passing Time

Level One
Geometry and Measurement
Units of Work
In these five activities the students explore sequences of time and the concept of faster and slower. These are teacher-led, whole class activities.
• Sequence events within a day.
• Describe a duration as long or short.
• Name and order the days of the week.

## Tricky Bags

Level One
Geometry and Measurement
Units of Work
This unit comprises 5 stations, which involve the students developing an awareness of the attributes of volume and mass. The focus is on the development of the language of measurement.
• Push, pull, lift and handle objects in order to become aware of mass.
• Compare 2 masses by pushing and lifting.
• Pack materials and fill containers.
• Pour liquids from and into containers.

## Ten in the Bed - Patterns

Level One
Number and Algebra
Units of Work
The unit uses the poem “Ten in the Bed” as a context for the students to begin to explore patterns in number and patterns within texts.
• Identify a number pattern.
• Identify repeating patterns in texts.
• Guess and check for the next number in a pattern.
• Predict "what comes next" based on the undertsanding of the pattern in number and text.
Source URL: https://nzmaths.co.nz/user/75803/planning-space/early-level-1-plan-term-3

## Pattern Matching

Purpose

In this unit students explore lines of symmetry in pictures, shapes and patterns and use their own words to describe the symmetry.

Achievement Objectives
GM1-5: Communicate and record the results of translations, reflections, and rotations on plane shapes.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Identify lines of symmetry in objects.
• Make patterns which have line symmetry.
• Describe line symmetry in their own words.
Description of Mathematics

In this unit, the central idea is that of symmetry, specifically line symmetry. This is an introductory and exploratory unit on this topic. As such it sets the groundwork for a great deal of later mathematics. As far as geometry is concerned, symmetry is important in classifying shapes (regular polygons versus non-regular polygons), in working with patterns, tessellations, and later curves in co-ordinate geometry.

Symmetry is fundamental to mathematics, even those aspects that seem to have nothing to do with geometry. For instance, in algebra, symmetric functions deal with variables that are all treated in the same way. Because symmetry is part of a child's environment, both in mathematics and the rest of their life, it is important that students explore the ideas relating to symmetry from an early age.

Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to support students include:

• providing squares and circles of many sizes so that students can work with shapes that have multiple options for the “folding line”
• providing additional support to draw a line on the fold and to position the mirror so that they can see the reflected side of the shape.

The context for this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students. For example: look at the line symmetry in fruit and vegetables (apples, tomatoes, pineapple, strawberries) or in objects outside the classroom (leaves, butterflies, spider webs, flowers).

Required Resource Materials
• Peg boards and pegs
• Geoboards
• Play-dough
• Magazine pictures
• Pictures to classify
• Mirrors
• Mosaic tiles
• Attribute blocks
• Classroom objects
• Cuisenaire rods
• Bottle tops
• Counters
• Cubes
• BSM 2-3-9, 2-3-87, 3-3-8, 3-3-51
• Ice block sticks
• Assorted craft materials
• Copymaster 1
Activity

#### Getting Started

In this session we explore shapes and pictures and classify these as having line symmetry and not having line symmetry. Students are encouraged to use their own language to describe objects and pictures that have symmetry.

1. Gather students in a group and pass out a selection of paper shapes (Copymaster 1). Ask students to talk about the shapes and what they know about them. Ask students Can you find a way to fold your shape in half so both halves are exactly the same? Talk about which shapes are easy to do this with and which ones are more difficult (for example, compare the circle and the hexagon). Ask students to draw a line on the fold that they discovered. Demonstrate with a mirror how holding a mirror on the fold line creates  an image of the whole shape. Then demonstrate how holding a mirror on other fold lines wouldn't (for example, across the heart shape can create a diamond or an bumpy cloud shape, or across a triangle can create a quadrilateral or a diamond). Explain that the fold line that creates exactly the same halves side by side is the special line we will be looking for this week.

2. Have a collection of objects and pictures in the centre along with mirrors, straws, scissors, magazines and two pieces of chart paper.
We are going to look through these pictures and objects and find out if any have two sides that match exactly.

Ask students to explore the objects and pictures on the mat and to choose one that has a line of symmetry and one that doesn’t. The language of symmetry could be introduced to describe the matching shapes.
Why have you chosen that object?
Try using the mirror to see if the sides will be the same.
Can you put a straw down the line of symmetry? (folding line)

3. Ask students to sort their shapes (those that have symmetry and those that don’t) onto the two pieces of chart paper and to state why they have placed them where they have. Ask students to check that each shape, object or picture is being placed on the appropriate piece of paper.
How can we tell for sure?

Encourage students to identify the line of symmetry and for some pictures to indicate if there is more than one line. The students can then contribute to captions to describe the two charts and how the objects have been classified.

4. Let the students independently explore the idea by using magazines to locate a picture of something with a line of symmetry and something with no line of symmetry. Students can paste these pictures onto a piece of paper or into a maths book. They draw a line or paste a straw onto the symmetrical picture to show the line of symmetry and provide a caption for the two pictures.

#### Exploring

Over the next few days students explore things that have line symmetry (or reflection symmetry) as they complete a variety of activities using shapes, familiar objects, pictures, patterns. The students could be organised into small groups and rotated through the activities or they could work independently choosing from a range of activities or marking off completed activities on a contract. As you are monitoring the activities, encourage the use of the vocabulary related to symmetry: reflection, line, half, match, etc

1. Pattern Match
Templates showing a pattern made with mosaic tiles are provided for the students. Each pattern stops at a line.
Students use mosaic tiles to complete the pattern so that it matches on each side of the line. The line is a line of symmetry.
Teaching Notes:
Templates could be made by drawing around mosaic tiles or setting up a pattern using the tiles and photocopying it. BSM 2-3-87 has some of these cards.
2. Symmetrical Patterns BSM 2-3-9
Students use the cards showing reflective symmetrical patterns, which they copy using concrete materials.
Students can locate the line of symmetry using a mirror or placing a straw (string, skewer, pencil, ice-block stick) along the line.
3. Splodge Pictures
Provide the students with pre-folded A4 paper or with a line down the middle.
Students paint splodges and patterns on one side of the paper.
The paper is then folded to create the matching pattern on the other side of the paper.
Students provide a caption about their picture either to describe how both sides are the same or to say something about the process for making the picture.
4. Place Mats
Students fold a half A4 piece of paper in half one way and then the other.
They cut out shapes on the folds.
Unfold the shapes and mount them on paper with a contrasting colour.
Students identify the lines of symmetry by drawing them in with a coloured pen.
Some students may want to use more folds and so create a more complicated pattern.
5. Leaf Lines
Students collect leaves and explore the symmetry or lack there of in different species. They can create a tray displaying different leaves and use straws or string to show the lines of symmetry found.
6. Pegboard Patterns (BSM 3-3-8)
Students use the pattern cards; they copy the patterns onto the pegboards.
Students locate the line/lines of symmetry.
Students create their own symmetrical patterns and get a friend to locate the line of symmetry.
7. Pegboard and Pattern "Snap" (BSM 3-3-51)
Students play as per the instructions in BSM booklet Cycle 3 Module 3 activity 51.
8. Symmetrical Me
Students look in a mirror to see if both sides of their face look the same.
Students take an outline drawing of a person and fold it in half to show a line of symmetry.
They add details to the person to make it a picture of themselves, for example, clothing, facial features, hair.
Students provide a caption about being the same on both sides.

#### Reflecting

In this session we review the activities that have been completed over the last few days and revisit the class charts and individual charts made in the initial activity. The students are provided with opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of symmetry, to find examples of line symmetry within the classroom, and to create a symmetrical pattern to contribute to a class book.

1. Gather the students on the mat and get them to describe the sorts of activities they have been involved in over the week. Encourage them to talk about patterns that match and about lines of symmetry.
What was special about the patterns we made with the pegboards?
Why did we put a line down the pictures of ourselves?
2. Revisit the charts made in the initial session and talk about the way the objects have been grouped.
Why was this picture of a house put on this chart?
Can you find the line of symmetry in this picture?
3. Get students to look at large objects in the classroom and to think about line symmetry, for example, the door, tables, chairs, the board. With a partner, get the students to find three things in the classroom that have line symmetry and to identify the line.
4. Gather the students back on the mat and show them a range of craft materials; coloured ice block sticks, pom poms, stickers, ink stamps, coloured toothpicks, pipe cleaners.
5. Give each student a piece of paper and get them to fold it down the middle.
6. Get the students to create a pattern by sticking on the craft materials on one side of the paper and then to mirror it on the other.
7. Get each student to provide a caption and to draw in the line of symmetry.
Attachments

## Knowing five

Purpose

The purpose of this unit is to lay the foundation for an understanding of grouping and to make connections between the different grouping arrangements for five and the symbolic recording associated with these.

Achievement Objectives
NA1-3: Know groupings with five, within ten, and with ten.
NA1-4: Communicate and explain counting, grouping, and equal-sharing strategies, using words, numbers, and pictures.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Quickly recognise patterns within and for five.
• Record an expression, using ‘and’, the symbol +, and 0.
• Use the equals = symbol and understand that is means ‘is the same as’.
• Record word stories and equations that describe a situation.
• Record an unknown using ☐ in addition equations.
• Record word stories and equations which describe a subtraction situation.
Description of Mathematics

This sequence of lessons lays a fundamental and important foundation for early formal recording of equations. Do not view these lessons with their focus on ‘numbers to five only’ as trivial, as there are many key understandings being established here such as how numbers work and how we talk about and record them.

The focus in these lessons is not on counting but is on instantly recognising or subitising combinations to five. The ability of some young children to recognise small quantities without counting has been somewhat overlooked in the emphasis we have recently given to counting. These lessons are a combination of recognising and just knowing groupings to five, and recording these combinations and separations in multiple ways, and in so doing establishing a base for continued strategy development.

Key concepts underpin these lessons. Students should understand that the number of objects remains the same regardless of their spatial arrangement. They should see and accept that there are many different representations for the combination or separation of sets of objects, both in terms of their physical manifestation and in terms of the symbolic representation of the operation.

Early formal recording of equations builds on a student’s developing numeral recognition and introduces symbols for operations: + - and =. Understanding the meanings of and principle use of these symbols is essential to making sense of our symbolic recording in mathematics. Showing written equations in a number of ways emphasises the meaning of the equals sign as ‘the same as’ rather than students developing the incorrect understanding that it signals that an answer follows the sign.

In communicating maths ideas, students learn to understand and use mathematical language, symbols, text and diagrams to express their thinking and record concepts in a range of contexts and in a variety of ways. Teachers have a key role in developing the students’ ability to communicate their mathematical understandings orally and in writing.

The activities suggested in this series of lessons can form the basis of independent practice tasks.

#### Links to the Number Framework

One to one counting
Counting from one on materials.
NB. The names of these stages both emphasise counting. However, counting is not the focus of these lessons.

Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

It is important to note that the focus of this unit is on instantly recognising (subitising) collections to five and not on counting the collection. While many students may be able to count five objects they may not be as proficient at subitising small collections. Ways to support students include:

• providing multiple opportunities to subitise with collections up to five before moving onto recognising how many more are needed to make five (session 2).  Vary the arrangements of the objects (e.g.in a line, in a dice pattern, closely grouped, randomly spread) and the objects (counters, toys, pencils, pebbles).
• Removing the need for them to identify the numeral or the written number words until they can confidently state the number of objects in the set.

The context for this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students by using collections that are part of the classroom or school environment (e.g. blocks, counters, plastic animals, pens, pebbles, leaves, seeds).

Required Resource Materials
• Large dice with dots
• Dice (enough for 1 for each pair of children)
• Counters
• Fives frames
• Sets of numeral cards 1-5
• Packs of playing cards
• Plastic coloured bears (or similar)
• Cards with pictures of groupings of objects (1-5)
• Egg cartons
Activity

A reminder; these activities emphasise quick recognition of amounts, rather than counting, and develop and model a number of ways of recording combinations (+) and separations (-). Each session includes several activities in which an idea is developed.

#### Session 1

SLO: To quickly recognise patterns within and for five.

Activity 1

1. Have the students show five fingers. Ask “How many fingers?” and have the students ‘write’ the numeral 5 with their finger in the air and on the mat.

2. Show a large dice with dots. Ask the students to hold up five fingers when they can see five dots on the dice. Show faces of the dice to the students in a random order.

3. Show the numeral 5 on a card and ask what number it is? Show the word ‘five’ and explain that the symbol 5 is a quick way to write ‘five’. Point out they mean the same thing. Connect “five”, what we say, and 5, what we write. Explain that you have a pile of cards with 5 on them.

4. Pass the large dice around the group for individuals to roll. Students hold up five fingers when they spot five dots rolled. The teacher takes a 5 numeral card each time 5 is rolled. How many fives did the class/group roll? Count the cards together when everyone has had a turn.

5. Set a time (eg. play a short favourite tune) and have the students work in pairs with one dice and a set of numeral cards showing 5. Students add a numeral card to a pile each time 5 is rolled and see which pair rolls the most fives in the given time. Check and compare ‘results’.

6. Provide 3 sets of numeral cards 1-5 and 3 sets of picture cards, and a dice to each pair of students.

Set a short time limit and have the students take turns to roll the dice, find the numeral card and picture card to match. The first student to complete a complete set of numeral and picture cards 1 – 5 OR all three ‘five’ numeral cards and pictures is the winner.

Activity 2

1. Introduce fives frames cards. Discuss with the students that a full card shows five dots. Establish their understanding that the whole line is full. There is no need to count them.

2. Set a short time limit. Have the students collect recording materials and work in pairs with one pile of five frames that show dots to five. They turn their pile upside down then take turns to turn over the five frames. Each student records the numeral for the number of dots shown. Encourage the students to support their partner in the task. The next card is turned when both have recorded their numeral. Conclude with each student circling the fives they recorded and by reporting the total to the class.

Activity 3

1. The teacher models putting her hand in the bag and drawing out between one and five counters. She quickly lays them on the mat and asks, “Is it five?”

2. Pass around (at least) one bag of counters of one colour. Ask the question, who can get five? Each student puts their hand in the bag, quickly takes a small handful without counting them and places them in one action on the mat, ensuring none overlays another. Ask, “Is it five?” Encourage the student to recognise the number without counting

#### Session 2

SLOs:

• To quickly recognise how many more are needed to make five.
• To record an expression, using ‘and’, the symbol + and 0.

Activity 1

Have students play Snap in pairs with five frames cards. Each student has their own pile of cards upside-down in front of them. As they turn over each card they say the number of dots they can see and say snap if it’s the same number that their partner has just laid down.

Activity 2

1. Show the fives frames cards. Discuss with the students the empty spaces and how many more counters are needed to make five. Show five frames in a random order to the class. Have the students show with their fingers how many more counters are needed to make five and write the numeral with their finger on the mat in front of them.

2. The teacher models recording the combinations, using ‘and’ and introducing the + symbol, for example 2 and 3, 1 + 4. Introduce 0 and model the example of 5 and 0 and 5 + 0. Write the meaning and synonyms, ‘plus’, and ‘and’.

3. Students work in pairs with fives frames, counters and recording materials. A time limit is set (eg. while a favourite piece of music is played or an egg timer is used) and students record combinations as they turn over the five frames cards, adding counters as appropriate.
This can be varied and made a little more abstract with the use of a dice. If a six is rolled, the student just writes 6. For every other roll the student records combinations to five.
For example if a three is rolled the student writes 3 (the dots seen) and 2 (the number of dots needed) or 3 + 2.

4. Playing cards 1 (ace) – 5 are introduced or large digit cards 1-5 are used. Discuss that the queen will be used as zero (she has no number) and model how a 5 and a queen is another way to show 5 + 0 = 5. Students work in pairs and play Memory Pairs to five. (Note: you could also use Material Master 4-1 to make a set of digit cards for this game.)
The students spread out the cards between them face down and take turns to find matching pairs of cards which together make five.

The students keep the digit pairs (for example 4 + 1, 2 + 3, 5 + 0) that make five and count these at the end of the game.

#### Session 3

SLOs:

• To use the equals (=) symbol and understand that is means ‘is the same as.’
• To record word stories that describe a situation. To record equations using + and = that match the word stories.
1. Have students form themselves into groups of five as they sit on the mat. If there is an incomplete group have these students help to record equations. Ask for 2 students in the first group to stand while 3 remain seated.

2. Write, for example: “In Molly’s group two children are standing and three children are sitting down. There are five children in Molly’s group.” Underline the number words in the story.

3. Ask who can write this in another way. Accept all suggestions, including ‘two and three is the same as five.’ This should result finally in recording 2 + 3 = 5. Emphasise the connection between the words and the symbols. Highlight the fact that the group has five, so 2 + 3 is another way of showing 5. It is the same as five. Use both ‘is the same as’ and ‘equals’ as the equations are read together. Repeat this with other combinations to five using the other groups of students sitting and standing.

4. Have the students work in pairs to draw pictures different combinations of bears sitting on fives frames and record equations for these.

Have the students read what they have written and display their work.

#### Session 4

SLOs:

• To connect word stories with mathematical equations involving unknowns.
• To record an unknown using ☐ in addition equations.

Activity 1

1. Show picture cards of numbers of items up to five.

Discuss stories that could be written about these. For example: “There are three dinosaurs. How many more do I need to make five? Three and what is the same as five?”

2. Model recording “three and what is the same as five”: 3 + ☐ = 5. Read this together aloud.

3. Distribute assorted picture cards to the students. Have them record their own ‘and what’ equations, show the pictures and read their equations to a buddy. Have their buddies answer the ‘and what?’ question.

Activity 2

1. Model writing equations with the unknown in different places, for example ☐ + 1 = 5, 5 + ☐= 5, 2 + 3 = ☐. Write these in word sentences and read aloud both the word sentences and the equations together. Together, answer what would go in the box, identify the unknown quantity.

2. Have the students draw pictures and write words and equations using equations with unknowns.

#### Session 5

SLOs:

• To record word stories which describe a subtraction situation.
• To record equations using - and = that match the word stories.
1. Ask five students to stand in front of the class. Tell four students from the group to return to their place on the mat, while one student remains standing. Record a word story for this. “Five children were standing. Four went away and sat down. One person is still standing.” Read the word story together and ask how this might be recorded just using numerals and symbols. Accept all suggestions and discuss.

2. Ask the five students to return and repeat the actions, recording the equation 5 – 4 = 1 as they do so. Emphasise the words ‘went away’. Introduce and write the words ‘subtract’ and ‘minus’. Read the equation several times, substituting the words and emphasising that they mean the same thing.

3. Model with students again, writing the word story and recording and reading and the equation in different ways.

4. Make "buses" by cutting compartments from a standard egg carton. Have students work in pairs with a fives egg carton bus and 5 plastic teddies. One student puts up to five teddies in the bus, drives it a little way and has some teddies "get off". Their partner writes a word story and an equation to describe what has happened. Have them complete 2 word stories and equations each then read what they have written with another pair of students.

5. Write equations using an unknown and read these together. 5 - 3 = ☐ , 5 - ☐ = 0. Together talk about what will ‘go in the box’ and complete these together.
Attachments

## Using five

Purpose

The purpose of this unit is to build upon the knowledge students have of combining and separating groupings to five and to use this as a building block to knowing combinations within and up to ten.

Achievement Objectives
NA1-1: Use a range of counting, grouping, and equal-sharing strategies with whole numbers and fractions.
NA1-3: Know groupings with five, within ten, and with ten.
NA1-4: Communicate and explain counting, grouping, and equal-sharing strategies, using words, numbers, and pictures.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Instantly recognise and describe a group of five in multiple representations of numbers within and to ten.
• Apply and record the operation of addition for groupings within ten.
• Understand the language of subtraction and apply the operation of subtraction to groupings within ten.
• Make connections between the operations of addition and subtraction and develop and understanding of the relationships underpinning the family of facts.
• Know and apply addition and subtraction facts within ten.
Description of Mathematics

The ability of young children to recognise small quantities without counting has been somewhat overlooked in the early emphasis we have given to counting. These lessons build upon the student’s recognition and knowledge of groupings to five, to scaffold ready combinations and separations in numbers to ten.

A goal within primary mathematics is for students to use partitioning strategies when operating on numbers. By building images and knowledge of basic combinations at an early age, the ability to naturally partition larger numbers will be strengthened. Students should be encouraged to instantly recognise and use their knowledge of these combinations rather than relying for an unduly prolonged period on counting strategies.

This set of lessons focuses on knowing combinations of numbers between five and ten. They develop the quinary (fives) partitioning of ‘five and’, whilst consolidating combinations (+) and separations (-) within five.

A range of equipment is available to represent these quinary partitions. Students should be encouraged to make the connections between each of these representations as well as creating some of their own.

In communicating maths ideas students learn to understand and use mathematical language, symbols, text and diagrams to express their thinking and record concepts in a range of contexts and in a variety of ways. Teachers have a key role in developing the students’ ability to communicate their mathematical understandings orally and in writing.

The activities suggested in this series of lessons can form the basis of independent practice tasks.

#### Links to the Number Framework

Stages 2 – 3
Counting from one on materials.
Counting from one by imaging NB.
The names of these stages both emphasise counting. Counting is not the focus of these lessons.

Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

It is important to note that the focus of this unit is on instantly recognising (subitising) collections and not on counting the collection. While many students may be able to count a set of objects they may not be as proficient at subitising small collections.  Ways to support students include:

• providing multiple opportunities to subitise with smaller collections up to five before moving onto larger groups. Vary the arrangements of the objects (e.g.in a line, in a dice pattern, closely grouped, randomly spread) and the objects (counters, toys, pencils, pebbles).

The context for this unit can be adapted to suit the interests and experiences of your students by using collections that are part of the classroom or school environment (e.g. blocks, counters, plastic animals, pens, pebbles, leaves, seeds).

Required Resource Materials
Activity

#### Session 1

SLO: To recognise and describe a group of five in multiple representations of numbers within and to ten.

Activity 1

1. Make paper, crayons/felts, pencils, counters (or similar mathematics equipment) available to the students. Set a time limit as appropriate. Have the students write, draw and show you everything they know about five.

2. Have the students pair share their work.

3. Write the word ‘five’ and the numeral '5' on chart paper or in a modeling book. Collect and record the important ideas that the students have generated. Be sure to use words, symbols and drawings of equations, stories or materials.

Activity 2

1. Show tens frame for 5.

Describe it in words: ‘There are five dots filling up one column (or side) of the tens frame’. Or, ‘There are five dots. They fill up half of the tens frame.’ Or, ‘There are five dots filling one side of the tens frame and five empty spaces on the other.’ Have the students describe to a partner what they see. Hide the tens frame. Have the student repeat their description to their partner of what they see in their mind.

2. Show the tens frames for 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

For each say the number of dots and repeat 1 above. Encourage participation and accuracy in the oral descriptions including saying how many empty spaces. For example: ‘Seven. Five dots and two dots and there are three empty spaces.’

3. Show the tens frames in random order and have the students say the number, make it on their fingers and show a partner.

4. Include all tens frames and repeat above, this time with say, show, and write (make writing materials available, or have them use a ‘magic finger’ to write on the surface in front of them or in the air.)

Activity 3

1. Introduce a 20 beads frame and animal strips. Discuss the similarities of the representations, model descriptions then have the students describe what they see.
For example: ‘Seven. There are five white beads and two red ones.’
For example: ‘Seven. There are five dolphins and two more dolphins after the dotted line.’
Repeat with the beads or animal strips hidden. Have the students describe a number image to a partner, then show for them to check to see if they are correct.

2. Distribute writing materials. Show numeral cards to 10 in random order and have them draw a matching image (using dots or beads). Emphasise the need for their drawing to show a group of five for numbers 6 – 10. Display the students’ work.

#### Session 2

SLO: To apply and record the operation of addition for groupings within ten.

Activity 1

1. Show the children a dice, discuss, record and read the dot combinations for four.
4 = 2 + 2, ‘Four is the same as two and two.’
1 + 3 = 4 , ‘One plus three equals four.’

2. Show the students other dice faces and have them write and share equations for these. Encourage students to record equations both ways as above. Use the language ‘equals’ and ‘is the same as’.

3. Hide the dice, say one of the numbers and ask the students to draw it. Repeat.

Activity 2

1. Repeat Activity 1 above with tens frames cards 5 – 10.

2. Have the students work in pairs to play Scoring a Tri. (Purpose: to recognise quickly representations of numbers 5 – 10)
Make the link for the students between tri and three, for example: tricycle (3 wheels), triangle (3 sides and corners).
Each pair has three shuffled piles of cards turned upside down between them: pile 1: tens frames 5 - 10, pile 2: digit cards 5 – 10, pile 3: equation cards 5 + 1 to 5 + 5 (Attachment 1). Compete to see who can ‘score a tri’ by turning over 3 matching cards. For example:

3. Students can repeat the game using animal strips, number word cards (instead of digit cards) and expressions. The winner is the person with the most sets.

Activity 3

1. Show an 8 tens frame. Pose the question “Is 5 + 3 the only way of writing something that is the same as 8?” Discuss and chart the multiple combinations that are the same as 8.

2. Distribute a tens frame (5 – 9) to each student and have them each write different combinations for the number of dots depicted.

3. Have each student share with a partner what they have done and ask, ‘Have I got them all?’

4. Conclude by revisiting the quinary (fives based) equipment used so far and reminding the students of how useful “5 and” is.

Activity 4

Play Murtles 5 and... (MM 5-9) (Purpose: to practice and know 5 + addition facts to 9)

#### Session 3

SLO: To understand the language of subtraction and apply the operation of subtraction to groupings within ten.

Activity 1

1. Tell and write with the students a subtraction story about someone in the class. For example: Emily was sharing her carrot sticks with Sadie. She had eight and gave three to Emily. How many did Emily have for herself? Ask the students to record what happened using numbers and have them share their recording.

2. Model 8 – 3 = 5 on chart paper or in a modeling book (to keep and refer to later). Draw a box around 8 and highlight this is what Emily started with. Talk about how many she gave away and how many were left. Brainstorm and record words for the – subtraction sign. These should include ‘give away, take away, subtract, minus, less’. Read 8 – 3 = 5 several times using all of the words. Emphasise that they mean the same thing.

3. Explain that 8 – 3 = 5 is known as an equation because it has the equals sign which means that 8 - 3 is the same as 5. Make the link between the word equals and the word equation.

4. Ask the students which is the biggest number in the equation. Ask them why it comes first. Have them model with equipment to understand that you can’t subtract a smaller number from a bigger number (we are not discussing negative numbers here)

5. Record the important points discussed on the chart paper.

Activity 2

1. Distribute a card with a subtraction expression (Attachment 2) to each student. Have them make a silent decision whether or not the result of the subtraction will be 5. Have them form two groups, a ‘Yes’ group and a ‘No’ group.

2. Have them take turns modeling their equation on the 20 beads (with 10 of the beads covered as they are not needed here) to show and explain why they are correct.

3. Ask the students whether knowing about the tens frames helped. With reference to the 20 beads frame, model the connection between 5 + 3 = 8 and 8 – 3 = 5.

4. In Attachment 1 there are three expressions, 5 – 7, 5 – 8, and 5 – 9 that are included to provoke discussion about why the big number comes first in subtraction equations. Refer to the chart made in 1. Above to emphasise this point.

Activity 3

Have the students work in pairs to play Murtles 5 and... (MM 5-9) in reverse. (Purpose: to practice and know subtraction facts that make 5) Each student covers all the numbers with see-through counters. They take turns to roll the dice.
If the number rolled can be subtracted from a covered number to leave a result of five, the counter can be removed. The aim of the game is to be the first to lighten Murtle Turtle’s load by clearing all the counters.

#### Session 4

SLO: To make connections between the operations of addition and subtraction and develop and understanding of the relationships underpinning the family of facts.

Activity 1

1. With reference to the 20 beads frame model the connection between 5 + 3 = 8 and 8 – 3 = 5. Talk about and record these equations and what the students notice about them, in particular that they have the same three numbers. Emphasise that these numbers have a special relationship and that this relationship sometimes means that we talk about “families” of numbers that are related.

2. With the group (or class) place a number strip where all the students can see it. Ask what they notice about it. (That it is coloured in groups of five). Connect this to the other quinary materials you have been using.
Have students model with see-through counters on the number strip and record 5 + 3 = 8 and 8 – 3 = 5. Ask if there is something else they can see with these numbers. Encourage them to see: 3 + 5 = 8 and 8 – 5 = 3. Together, model and record all four equations using another number up to 10. Model the same equation on a tens frame. Discuss what is the same about the representations. Emphasise the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and the phrase : ‘If I know this (eg. 5 + 3 = 8) then I know this (eg. 8 – 3 = 5).

3. Explain the class is making a display of ‘number families’, sometimes called ‘families of facts’. Ask, ‘What is a fact?’ Emphasise that a fact is a true statement. Distribute number strips, blank tens frames and counters to pairs of students. Have them make, draw and record in pairs ‘families of facts’ associated with some of the numbers 5 – 10. They can choose to use number strips, tens frames or both. iv. Encourage the students to record the families of different combinations, not just those of ‘5 and’ such as 5 + 3 = 8 (5 + 3 = 8, 3 + 5 = 8, 8 – 5 = 3, 8 – 3 = 5) but also 6 + 2 = 8 (6 + 2 = 8, 2 + 6 = 8, 8 – 2 = 6, 8 – 6 = 2). Be sure to discuss and display the students’ work.

Activity 2

Have the students in pairs play ‘Go Fish’ or ‘Happy Families’ (Attachment 3 (Purpose: to identify all members of families of facts))

5 + 4 = 9 4 + 5 = 9 9 – 5 = 4 9 – 4 = 5

The aim of the game is to make the greatest number of complete families of facts.
The Family of Fact cards are shuffled and placed face down. Each player takes seven cards.
The players sort their cards in their hand into ‘families’, identifying complete families and placing these face up in front of them.
Each player takes turn to ask their partner for missing family members. If their partner cannot supply the card, they are told to ‘Go fish’. They take a card from the pile.
The game is played till all the cards are used and the winner is the person with the most complete families.

#### Session 5

SLO : To know and apply addition and subtraction facts within ten.

Show selected tens frames, 20 beads frame and animal strips, modeling eg. for 7 and 9. Have children model these with their fingers and talk about the related addition and subtraction equations.

Explain that they will be playing some games just working with numbers, but that they might like to picture fingers, tens frames, bead frames or animals to help them if they need to.

Explain the purpose of the activities is to practice what they know.

In pairs play the following games, using playing cards with Kings, Jacks and tens removed, and using the Queen as a zero:

1. Snap’ for a chosen number to 9. (Purpose: to practice and know addition and subtraction facts to 9)
Students draw a number from the pile, for example 7. This becomes the chosen number they must make.
One card is turned over to begin the game.
Students take turns to turn over a card from the pack, placing the turned card on top of the card before. If the turned card can combine in some way with the previous card to make the chosen number, the student says ‘Snap’, states the equation and collects the pile of cards.
The game begins again with the same chosen number.
For example, for the chosen number 7: if 9 is turned, followed by a 2, 9 – 2 = 7 is stated and the pile of cards is collected, or if 3 is turned, followed by 4, 3 + 4 = 7 is stated and the pile is collected.

2. Memory’ for a chosen number to 9. (Purpose: to practice and know addition and subtraction facts to 9)
Cards are turned down and spread out in front of the students. A chosen number is turned over and identified.
Students take turns to draw pairs. If the cards can make the chosen number, using either addition or subtraction, the pair is kept by the player. For example: 4 is turned over and identified as the chosen card. A player draws a 6 and a 2, and states 6 – 2 = 4 and keeps the pair, or a player draws 1 and 3 and states 1 + 3 = 4 and keeps the pair.
The game continues until all cards are used up.
The winner is the person with the most pairs.

3. ‘Dice pairs’ for a chosen number to 9. (Purpose: to practice and know addition and subtraction facts to 9 and family of facts members)
Each player has a blank tens frame and ten counters to place one at a time on the frame to record their score. The winner is the first one to fill their frame.
Players roll two dice, combine these to identify a chosen number of 9 or less. If the combination is more than 9 they roll again.
Players take turns to roll the two dice to make the identified number. Each time they are successful and can state an equation and the other 3 members of the family of facts, they score by placing one counter on their tens frame. For example: If 8 is the chosen number. A player rolls a 2 and a 6 and states 6 + 2 = 8, 2 + 6 = 8, 8 – 2 = 6, 8 – 6 = 2. They are correct and place one counter on their tens frame.

4. Have students each make puzzle cards for the class to use. (Purpose: to depict a context for a family of facts and record these)
Make available cards marked in 3 sections as shown below, felts/crayons and scissors. Have the students draw pictures of equations, write them, then cut into two puzzle pieces to match. When several have been created, students can play memory match, by turning the pieces upside down and trying to find pictures and matching equations.
Attachments

## Passing Time

Purpose

In these five activities the students explore sequences of time and the concept of faster and slower. These are teacher-led, whole class activities.

Achievement Objectives
GM1-1: Order and compare objects or events by length, area, volume and capacity, weight (mass), turn (angle), temperature, and time by direct comparison and/or counting whole numbers of units.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Sequence events within a day.
• Describe a duration as long or short.
• Name and order the days of the week.
Description of Mathematics

Students’ experience with time has two aspects:

• duration - the length of time passing
• telling time - indicating time at a particular moment.

This unit concerns duration of time.

Students need to develop an understanding of the duration of time as well as being able to identify moments of time. Time differs from other areas of measurement, in that students are more likely to meet the standard units of time such as days and hour times, before they have fully grasped the concept of duration of time.

Right from the start students need to be acquainted with the concept of time as duration. They need to have many experiences of duration in order to establish that an event has a starting and finishing point and that these determine the duration of that event. Arranging pictures of events in the current sequence helps develop the concept of duration. The use of such words as before, after, soon, now, later, bedtime, lunchtime, etc., helps to develop the understanding of this attribute of time.

Looking at standard cycles of time follows from the sequencing of daily event. Students learn the sequence of the days of the week but initially may not fully understand the way we use the names repeatedly. Terms such as today, tomorrow, yesterday, weekend, etc., can be learnt in relation to the cycle of days. The sequence of months can also be developed as well as the grouping of months into seasons. However, students grasp the week cycle more quickly than the year cycle probably because they have more experience of the former and it happens more often.

Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing more support or challenge to students. For example, Session 2 could be modified to include pictures or photos of different activities that students place in a sequence. Alternatively the strip of paper could be split into fewer or more sections depending on the confidence of the child.

The contexts for this unit are strongly based on the experiences of your students.  It could be strengthened, if appropriate, by collecting information from whānau about their child’s after school routines (session 3) and by bringing photos of different members of their whānau or themselves to order by age (session 5).

Required Resource Materials
• String and pegs to hang pictures
• Paper
• Crayons
• Paper strips with the days of the week written on each strip. Use 2 colours, one colour for weekdays and another colour for the weekend.
• Staples or cellotape
• Paper
• Pictures of people of varying ages
• Magazines
Activity

#### Session 1: Time on a line

In this activity we sequence events which occur within a school day.

Resources:
• String and pegs to hang pictures
• Paper
• Crayons
1. Brainstorm with the students all the things that they do in a school day, for example, reading, newsboard, playtime, maths, lunchtime, writing, hometime.
2. Ask the students to draw a picture of something that they do every day at school. Work with the students to write captions for their pictures.
3. Bring the students together to pin their events on the line of string.
4. As each student pegs their picture to the line ask them to explain where it goes. If more than one student has drawn the same event tape them together.
Where does your picture go?
What happens before your picture?
5. When everyone has pegged their picture to the line discuss the order of events and ask them to decide where new events belong.

Where would I put playtime?
Where would I put your parents coming to collect you from school.
Which are morning events?
Which events happen in the afternoon?

#### Session 2: My day

In this activity we sequence the events in our day from when we wake up until when we go to bed. We make these into a wrap-around-book.

Resources:
• A strip of paper divided into 5 sections
1. Begin by asking the students to tell you about the first thing they do when they wake up.
The first thing I do is look out the window.
What do you do?
2. Get them to draw the first thing that they do on the first segment of the strip. Share the drawings.
3. Ask the students to think about the last thing that they do each day. (In bed asleep)
4. Draw this on the last segment.
5. Now ask the students to think about the other things that they do during the day.
6. Tell your friend about the things you do.
7. Fill in the other pictures on your day chart.
8. Join the ends of the strip to make a wrap-around-book.
9. Share the "My day books".

#### Session 3

In this activity we sequence days of the week. The activity works best if it can be developed over a week, taking a couple of minutes a day.

Resources:
• Paper strips with the days of the week written on each strip. Use 2 colours, one colour for weekdays and another colour for the weekend.
• Staples or cellotape
1. On Monday give each student a strip of paper with Monday written in both English and Māori.
2. Ask the students to tell you events that happen on Monday – list these on a chart.
On Monday I ….go to ballet, visit Grandpa etc
Ask each student to write one thing that happens on Monday on their strip. They can copy one from the class chart if they prefer.
3. Help students join the ends of their paper strip to form a loop.
4. On Tuesday repeat the process, linking the Tuesday loop to Monday’s loop.
5. Repeat this for Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.
6. On Friday ask the students:
On what day does the chain start?
How many days are in the chain? Can you say them in English? In Māori?
What day was it yesterday?
What day is it today?
What day is it tomorrow?
7. Add loops for Saturday and Sunday.
8. In the following weeks loops can be added to a class chain to develop the idea of repetition of days of the week.

#### Session 4 : Fast and Slow

In this activity we discuss things that move quickly and slowly. We begin by reading the story of the hare and the tortoise.

Resources:
• Paper
1. Begin the activity by exploring fast and slow actions.
Let’s wave our hands quickly…now slowly
Let’s clap quickly…slowly
2. Ask the students to share their ideas for other fast and slow actions.
What other things can we do quickly and then slowly?
3. Discuss things that students know that go fast or slow. List these ideas on a chart of slow and fast things.
4. Ask the students to think of their favourite fast thing and their favourite slow thing. Draw these onto a piece of paper.
5. Share the pictures of fast and slow things.

#### Session 5: Ages

In this activity we begin by looking at pictures of people of varying ages. (An alternative idea is to use photos of you, the teacher, at various ages from birth until your present age.)

Resources:
• Pictures of people of varying ages, images from the internet, photos from magazine, or family photos
• Magazines
1. Gather the students on the mat to show them the pictures. Begin with the picture of a baby. (If it is a photo of you get the students to guess who they think it is.)
How old do you think the baby is?
Do you know any babies? Who?
2. Show two more pictures of students.
Who do you think is older?
How can you tell?
How old do you think that student might be?
Is that older or younger than you?
3. Before you show the next picture ask the students to guess who it might be a picture of. (mother, grandmother)
What picture do you think I am going to show you next? Why did you guess that?
4. As you discuss the pictures display them on a line in order of age.
5. Ask the students to either cut from magazines or draw 4 pictures of people of different ages.
6. Give the sets to other students to order.
7. Share the strips of pictures.

## Tricky Bags

Purpose

This unit comprises 5 stations, which involve the students developing an awareness of the attributes of volume and mass. The focus is on the development of the language of measurement.

Achievement Objectives
GM1-1: Order and compare objects or events by length, area, volume and capacity, weight (mass), turn (angle), temperature, and time by direct comparison and/or counting whole numbers of units.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Push, pull, lift and handle objects in order to become aware of mass.
• Compare 2 masses by pushing and lifting.
• Pack materials and fill containers.
• Pour liquids from and into containers.
Description of Mathematics

Early experiences must develop an awareness of what mass is, and of the range of words that can be used to describe it. A mass needs to be brought to many students’ attention as it is not an attribute that can be seen. They should learn to pick up and pull objects to feel their heaviness. Initially young students describe objects as heavy or not heavy. They gradually learn to compare and use more meaningful terms such as lighter and heavier.

As with other measures, students require practical experience to begin to form the concept of an object taking up space. Students need lots of experiences of filling and emptying containers with sand and water. They need to have pouring experiences with containers of similar shape but different capacity and vice versa. They also need to fill containers with objects and build structures with blocks. The use of language such as: it’s full, it’s empty, there’s no space left and it can hold more, focus attention on the attribute of volume. The awareness of the attribute of volume is extended as comparisons of volume are made at the next stage.

The stations may be taken as whole class activities or they may be set up as "centres" for the students to use. We expect that many 5 year-olds will already be aware of the attributes of volume and mass. For them these may be useful learning through play activities.

Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing more support or challenge to students. For example:

• In session 1 and 2 increase the challenge by asking students to order three bags/cartons by mass.

The measuring activities in this unit can be adapted to use objects that are part of your students everyday life.  For example:

• In session 1 compare the mass of students’ backpacks.
• In session 3 replace The Three Bears with another story that has characters with different sized “appetites”, that is popular with your students (e.g. Peppa, George and Daddy Pig).
Required Resource Materials
• Session 1: Two bags, supermarket reusable bags
• Session 2: Two cartons, chart paper
• Session 3: Paper or light card, popcorn
• Session 4: Paper cups, beans, containers
• Session 5: Book Corner
Activity

#### Session 1: Tricky bags

In this activity we investigate two bags that look the same but one empty and the other is filled with books.

1. Display the two bags for the students to see.
Are these bags the same or different?
How do you know?
Are you sure?
2. If no one suggests looking in the bags or lifting them ask for two volunteers to lift a bag each and describe what they feel. List the words that they use.
3. Let other students lift the bags and give their description.
4. Give pairs of students two supermarket bags and ask them to make up their own "tricky bags"
5. Let the students share their tricky bags with other pairs of students. Remind them to describe what the bag feels like when they lift it.
Can you guess by just looking which is heavy?

#### Session 2: Push and Pull

In this activity we push and pull objects to see which feels heavier.

1. Show the students two large cartons.
Are these cartons the same or different?
How do you know?
Are you sure?
How could you find out?
2. If this activity has followed from the tricky bags activity you would expect the students to suggest that they lift the cartons. Tell the students that the cartons are too large to be lifted and ask if they could think of another way of comparing them.
The cartons are too large for you to lift safely. Can you think of another way of finding out how heavy they are?
3. Let the students take turns pushing or pulling the cartons.
Do you think they are the same?
Why? Why not?
Which carton is heavier? How do you know?
4. Discuss the objects that the students have seen being pushed or pulled rather than lifted. For example: beds, tables, television cabinet, couches.
5. Ask the students to draw a picture of one of these objects. Attach them to a chart of "Pushes and Pulls".

#### Session 3: Popcorn for the 3 bears

In this activity we make popcorn containers for the Three Bears.

1. Read or tell the story "The Three Bears" to the students. When you have finished tell the students that the bears are going to the movies and want to buy some popcorn.
What size popcorn would Father Bear want?
What size popcorn would Mother Bear want?
What size popcorn would Baby Bear want?
2. Tell the students that they are going to make popcorn containers for the Bears popcorn. Show the students how to make popcorn cones by rolling a piece of paper or light card.
3. Ask the students to make containers for the Three Bears popcorn.
4. As a class look at the popcorn cones made.
How could we check if Father Bears holds the most?
5. Give the students popcorn to pour between the containers to check.

#### Session 4: Fill it up

In this activity we pour water (or beans) between containers and guess how high up the water will go.

1. Show the class a cup full of beans and an empty ice-cream container.
What do you think will happen if I pour the beans into the ice-cream container?
How far will it fill up?
2. Check and discuss
Did you guess correctly?
Is the container full?
Is it empty?
3. Give each student a cup full of beans. Put several containers of varying sizes around the room. Ask the students to pour their beans into the containers, first guessing how high up they think the beans will go.

#### Session 5: Book corner

In this activity we look at some picture books that could be read to the students to reinforce measuring language associated with volume and mass.

1. Who sank the Boat? Pamela Allen. (1983). Putman Publishing Group
2. Teddy bears go shopping.  Gretz, S. (1985) Scolastic.
3. Goldilocks and the three bears
4. Phoebe and the hot water bottles. Furchgolt, T., and Dawson, L. (1980) Collins.
5. Something absolutely enormous. Wild, M. (1984) Ashton Scholastic.
6. Mr Archimedes' bath.  Allen, P. (1985) Nelson.

More titles and measurement specific activities are available on the Level 1 Measurement Picture Books page.

## Ten in the Bed - Patterns

Purpose

The unit uses the poem “Ten in the Bed” as a context for the students to begin to explore patterns in number and patterns within texts.

Achievement Objectives
NA1-1: Use a range of counting, grouping, and equal-sharing strategies with whole numbers and fractions.
NA1-5: Generalise that the next counting number gives the result of adding one object to a set and that counting the number of objects in a set tells how many.
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Identify a number pattern.
• Identify repeating patterns in texts.
• Guess and check for the next number in a pattern.
• Predict "what comes next" based on the undertsanding of the pattern in number and text.
Description of Mathematics

This unit looks at some simple number patterns. The work here is the kind that helps to provide a foundation for all future pattern work and hence for algebra proper. The key things that the students should learn are that:

• a pattern involves a continual repetition in some way
• the next term in a pattern can be guessed
• that this guess should be checked

As the students go further up the levels they will see that it is possible to formally write down expressions to show how to go from one term in the pattern to the next. They will also see how to find formulae for step (ii).

#### Cross-curricular links (English)

Listening, Reading, and Viewing - Language Features, level 1

• Recognise and begin to undertsand how language features are used for effect within and across texts.
Opportunities for Adaptation and Differentiation

The learning opportunities in this unit can be differentiated by providing or removing support to students and by varying the task requirements. Ways to support students include:

• providing more opportunities to work with the sequence of numbers to five before working with numbers to ten, for example, investigating five in the bed, five in the bus and five in the waka before looking at the sequence to 10.
• Provide more opportunities to work with patterns of two before moving onto patterns with other numbers.

The contexts for this unit can be adapted to suit the experiences of your students.  For example, instead of 10 people in the bed it could be 10 people on the bus, 10 people sleeping at the marae, or 10 chickens in the backyard.

Required Resource Materials
• "Ten in the Bed" by Penny Dale, Walker Books or a copy of the poem
• Chart paper and pen
• Counters, cubes, pencil and paper
Activity

#### Session 1

Here we share a story and construct a pattern grid from the story.

1. Share the story “Ten in the Bed”.
2. With the help of the class, rewrite the poem so that the initial character is calling others to bed. There was one in the bed and the little one said,
“Come to bed, come to bed.”
There were two in the bed and the little one said
“Come to bed, come to bed.”
3. As the poem is compiled, record what is happening in pictorial form and also record the total number of children in bed each time on the pattern grid (see one completed under step 8 below). For example:
4. Encourage the students to predict the next number each time.
What is happening?
Who can see a pattern in the pictures?
What is that pattern?
Who can see a pattern in the numbers?
What is that pattern?
5. As a class, continue to construct the grid up to five in the bed. As you record the poem encourgae students to predict and repeat the parts of the text that form the pattern. These can be highlighted in a particular colour for emphasis. What is the same about the next page? What words will need to change?
6. How many will be in the bed next?
Students make predictions and are then asked to go and check their answers using paper and pencil or objects.
7. Students continue until there are 10 children in the bed.
8. Volunteers share their solutions.
What did you do to find the answer?
Did someone do it another way?
9. The chart and book are compiled up to ten and both are displayed for the students to explore further. (See pattern grid below.)
 Number of jumps into bed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of children 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

#### Session 2

Here we focus on the number of eyes in the bed to build up a pattern that goes up two at a time.

1. Share the poem and the chart compiled in the previous session. Focus on the pattern and how the students knew what was coming next.
2. If there was one (tahi, tasi) person in the bed how many eyes would we see?
3. Select students to act out the problem.
4. If there were two (rua, lua) people, how many eyes would there be?
What did you do to work it out?
Record the number of eyes the same way as in the previous session.
5. Continue the story up to four people in bed. Record what has happened on the chart.
6. What is happening on our chart?
Look at the picture of the eyes. What is happening each time?
Look at the numbers. What is happening here each time?
7. The students are asked to continue the pattern to find out how many eyes there would be in the bed if there were ten in the bed. They are able to use pencil and paper, counters, cubes.
8. Students come back to whole class setting to share their solutions.
What did you do? Why did you do that? Did some one do it another way?
9. The class jointly completes the chart. (See below.)
 Number of jumps into bed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of eyes 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

#### Session 3

Here we explore a pattern that increases by five and record it on a pattern grid.

1. Reread the new version of “Ten in the Bed.”
2. Tell the class that each evening their mother comes in to give the children a goodnight kiss. She gives each child five kisses. Record this information for one child on a chart using pictures and number.
 Number of children kissed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of kisses 5

How many kisses would mum give if there were two in the bed?
How could we find out?
Record the answer on the chart.

3. Repeat for three in the bed.
How many kisses will mum give now?
4. Examine the chart.
Can anyone see a pattern in the picture?
Is there a pattern in the numbers?

Can we use this pattern to work out how many kisses mum will need to give if there are five in the bed? Seven in the bed?
5. Students solve the problems then return to a whole class setting.
6. What answers did you find?
What did you do to find the answer?

Why did you do this?
Could we do it another way?
How did you use the pattern to help you find the answer?”
7. The class jointly completes the chart first using the solutions the students already have and second by predicting and then confirming using the pattern that they have seen.

#### Session 4

The students explore patterns of ten using toes as a focus.

1. Read through previous days’ chart drawing attention to the picture and number pattern.
2. Today we are going to find out how many toes there might be in the bed.  If there was one child in the bed we know there would be ten toes.
Does any one know how many toes there would be if there were two children in the bed?
How did you work that out?
3. Using equipment or pencil and paper the students explore patterns of ten until they are able to say how many toes there would be with up to ten children in the bed.
4. Students share their thinking and solutions with the class.

#### Session 5

The students design questions around “Ten in the Bed” for their class to solve.

1. We have been exploring patterns from our poem.
We have looked at patterns of eyes, kisses and toes.
Today you are going to make up your own questions about our story for the class to solve.
(You may need to discuss this with them before they start on their own.)
2. Students write problems that involve exploring patterns in the poem.
3. Students swap problems and solve each others problems.
4. Students share their problems and solutions with the class.
Attachments

Printed from https://nzmaths.co.nz/user/75803/planning-space/early-level-1-plan-term-3 at 4:43pm on the 25th June 2022