The purpose of this unit is to engage the student in applying their knowledge and skills of measurement to solve problems involving food technology.

Students develop their skills and knowledge on the mathematics learning progression, measurement sense, in a food technology context.

Students will apply their skills and understanding of measurement to solve food technology problems involving the interdependence of variables when scaling the components of a recipe.

### Structure

This cross-curricular, context based unit has been built within a framework that has been developed with input from teachers across the curriculum to deliver the mathematics learning area, while meeting the demands of differentiated student-centred learning. The unit has been designed around a six session focus on an aspect of mathematics that is relevant to the integrating curriculum area concerned. For successful delivery of mathematics across the curriculum, the context should be meaningful for the students. With student interest engaged, the mathematical challenges often seem more approachable than when presented in isolation.

The first session is an introductory activity that is aimed to spark the imagination of students, to introduce the need for a particular idea or technique in mathematics that would enable them to explore deeper into that context. It is expected that rich discussion may be had around the context and around the nature of the mathematics involved.

The following five sessions are each based around a model of student-centred differentiated learning.

- There is a starting problem to allow students to settle into the session and to focus on the mathematics within the chosen context. These starting problems might take students around ten minutes to attempt and/or to solve, in groups, pairs or individually.
- It is then expected that the teacher will gather the students together to review the problem and to discuss ideas, issues and mathematical techniques that they noticed during the process. It may be helpful to summarise key outcomes of the discussion at this point.
- The remaining group of activities are designed for differentiating on the basis of individual learning needs. Some students may have managed the focus activity easily and be ready to attempt the
*reinforcing ideas*or even the*extending ideas*activity straight away. These could be attempted individually or in groups or pairs, depending on students’ readiness for the activity concerned. The students remaining with the teacher could begin to work through the*building ideas*activity together, peeling off to complete this activity and/or to attempt the*reinforcing ideas*activity when they feel they have ‘got it’. - It is expected that once all the students have peeled off into independent or group work of the appropriate selection of
*building*,*reinforcing*and*extending*activities, the teacher is freed up to check back with the ‘early peelers’ and to circulate as needed.

### Introductory Session

(to motivate students towards the context/integrated learning area and to inform teachers of each student’s location on the learning progressions):

Baking in bulk or batches?

A café serves cheese scones. A standard mixture takes 15 minutes to prepare, 20 minutes to bake and produces 14 scones. If the mixture is doubled, it needs a further 7 minutes to prepare but takes the same time to bake. The café oven can fit a maximum of 20 scones at a time for even baking.

- What is the percentage time saved by making a double mixture?
- Is it best to bake in bulk or batches (a double mix, or two singles)?

In this activity, students are encouraged to consider the practicalities of the context, food technology, and to include relevant calculations within their reasoning. This activity integrates mathematical skills and knowledge with the technology learning area in the context of food technology.

Mathematical discussion that should follow this activity involve:

- The best scones are baked immediately after mixing. To produce 28 of the best scones, is it best to bake in bulk or batches?
- The café will be serving the scones throughout the day. Taking this into consideration is it best to bake in bulk or batches?
- Would the time saved in mixing the ingredients to bake in bulk outweigh the advantages of baking in batches?

### Session One

**Focus activity**

The Nouveau-Traditional Café wants to put a twist on ‘golden sausages’, making the dish from one large meat loaf. Whereas a dish made of 6 sausages would take 25 minutes to bake at 180°C, a single meatloaf made from the same amount of sausage meat takes one hour to cook at the same temperature.

Explain why the difference in the cooking time.

Discussion arising from activity:

- What physical quantities/variables have been kept the same with the change in the recipe?
- What physical quantities have changed going from sausages to meatloaf?
- How does the cooking process depend on time? How might this be relevant to the change from sausages to meatloaf?

**Building ideas**

The cooking time of a meatloaf made in a standard loaf time, depends on the height of the loaf. This has been shown in the graph below, but unfortunately, the scale for the height of the loaf has not been drawn in.

- A loaf that is 6 cm high takes one hour to cook. A loaf that is 10 cm high takes twice as long to cook as the 6 cm loaf. Use this information to determine the horizontal scale of the graph.
- Use the graph to determine the cooking time for an 8 cm high loaf.

**Reinforcing ideas**

The cooking time of a sausage, or meatloaf made from sausage meat, depends on the minimum dimension (length, height or width) of the sausage or loaf.

- Graph the cooking time against the minimum dimension of the following sausages/meatloaf:
- Describe this relationship.
- What would the cooking time for a meatloaf of width 10 cm, height 6 cm and length 22 cm be?
- What would the cooking time for a meatloaf of width 12 cm, height 8 cm and length 22 cm be?

**Extending ideas**

The cooking time of a sausage, or meatloaf made from sausage meat, depends on the minimum dimension (length, height or width) of the sausage or loaf. A rule that gives a good approximation of the cooking time for a meatloaf in an oven set to 175°C is x^{2} + x - 13, where x is the length in cm of the minimum dimension of the loaf.

- Describe this relationship.
- What would the cooking time for a meatloaf of width 15 cm, height 6 cm and length 25 cm be?
- What would the cooking time for a meatloaf of width 12 cm, height 8 cm and length 25 cm be?

### Session Two

**Focus activity**

What would the roasting instructions for a 1.25 kg rump be?

Discussion arising from activity:

- Would the temperature of the oven be the same or different?
- What is the mass of the rump in grams?
- Should the chef rely purely on this formula?

**Building ideas**

- What would the roasting instructions for a 500 g rump be?
- What would the roasting instructions for a 1000 g rump be?
- What would the roasting instructions for a 1500 g rump be?
- Write the rule to give the time to roast a rump, t in minutes, based on the mass, m in g.
- Use your rule to find the roasting time for a 1250 g rump.

**Reinforcing ideas**

- What would the roasting instructions for a 0.5 kg rump be?
- What would the roasting instructions for a 1 kg rump be?
- What would the roasting instructions for a 1.5 kg rump be?
- Write the rule to give the time to roast a rump, t in minutes, based on the mass, m in kg.
- Use your rule to find the roasting time for a 1.75 kg rump.

**Extending ideas**

- Write the rule to give the time to roast a rump, t in minutes, based on the mass, m in g.
- Show this rule on a graph.
- To roast a chicken, the oven is set slightly hotter and the roasting time is given as ten minutes plus a further 20 minutes per 400g. Write the rule to give the time to roast a chicken, t in minutes, based on the mass, m in g.
- Show the chicken roasting rule on the same graph as the rump roast rule.
- Use the graph the two rules to find what mass of meat will have the same roasting time regardless of whether it is rump beef or chicken.

### Session Three

**Focus activity**

- Will the mass of the ingredients be more, less or the same as the mass of the product? Exactly or approximately?
- Which ingredient is the least likely to be the same as the mass stated in the recipe?
- Will the mass of one mini pavlova be one sixth of the mass of the full mixture?

**Building ideas**

A cake served in the Light-not-Lite café has a mass of 1.35 kg.

- What is the mass of this cake in grams?
- If the cake is sliced into 8 pieces, what is the mass of one slice?
- If the cake is sliced into 12 pieces, what is the mass of one slice?

**Reinforcing ideas**

The recipe for a cake served in the Light-not-Lite café asks for:

2 c caster sugar

1 ¾ c flour

¾ c cocoa

2 tsp baking powder

2 eggs

1 ½ c milk

½ c sunflower or soya oil

The Light-not-Lite Café uses the following conversion tables to calculate the mass of the ingredients they use in the kitchen.

Flour, baking powder, cocoa powder | Caster sugar, oil | Water, milk | |

Mass (g) of one cup | 130 | 225 | 240 |

Cup | Tablespoon | Teaspoon |

1 | 16 | 48 |

The cake is sliced into 8 pieces for serving in the café. Find the mass, in grams, of one slice of cake.

**Extending ideas**

The recipe for a cake served in the Light-not-Lite café asks for:

2 c caster sugar

1 ¾ c flour

¾ c cocoa

2 tsp baking powder

2 eggs

1 ½ c milk

½ c sunflower or soya oil

The Light-not-Lite Café uses the following conversion tables to calculate the mass of the ingredients they use in the kitchen.

Flour, baking powder, cocoa powder | Caster sugar, oil | Water, milk | |

Mass (g) of one cup | 130 | 225 | 240 |

Cup | Tablespoon | Teaspoon |

1 | 16 | 48 |

Find the percentage difference in mass of the plain cake compared with the chocolate cake.

### Session Four

**Focus activity**

At the busy Espresso Express, the average time to prepare coffee has been found as 30 s to prepare a black coffee, 60 s to prepare a coffee with steamed milk and 90 s to prepare a coffee with frothed milk.

How many steamed milk coffees can be prepared in the same time it takes to make two frothed milk and six black coffee drinks?

Discussion arising from activity:

- Are there any strategies the barista could take to save time?
- Would these have been taken into consideration finding the average time to prepare a particular drink?

**Building ideas**

The barista at the Espresso Express is paid at the rate of $24 per hour.

- What is the average labour cost of producing a steamed milk coffee?
- What is the average labour cost of producing a black coffee?
- What is the average labour cost of producing two black coffees?
- What is the average labour cost of producing three black coffees?
- What is the average labour cost of producing a frothed milk?

**Reinforcing ideas**

The barista at the Espresso Express is paid at the rate of $24 per hour.

- What is the average labour cost of producing a frothy milk and a steamed milk coffee?
- How much more is the average labour cost of producing three black coffees than of producing a steamed milk coffee?
- What is the average labour cost of producing two steamed milk coffee and one black coffee drinks?
- The price of a cup of coffee is the sum of the labour costs, the resource costs and the mark up. The café charges $4.50 for a steamed milk coffee. What is the mark up on a steamed milk coffee?

**Extending ideas**

The Espresso Express makes coffee continuously during working hours. The average cup of coffee uses $1.50 of resources to produce and then the labour cost the barista of (paid at the rate of $24 per hour) needs to be included. The café charges $4.50 for a steamed milk coffee drink.

- What is the profit on a steamed milk coffee drink?
- If the Espresso Express puts the same mark up on all their drinks, what will the cost of a long black coffee be?
- If the Espresso Express puts the same mark up on all their drinks, what will the cost of a frothy cappuccino coffee be?

### Session Five

**Focus activity**

The catering firm ‘Noble Nibbles’ has asked to serve finger food (nibbles) at a function for 200 guests. The caterers need to provide trays of finger food over the 1 ½ hours the function is scheduled to last. Estimating that each person will consume a nibble at a rate of 1 piece every five minutes, how many nibbles do Noble Nibbles need to prepare?

Discussion arising from activity:

- What factors might affect the rate at which nibbles are consumed?

**Building ideas**

Noble Nibbles are serving trays of finger food to a function. They have estimated that 90 trays of nibbles are needed.

- How many trays will each of the ten waiting staff take over the course of the function?
- The function lasts for 1 ½ hours. How long is it estimated to take for all the nibbles to be picked off a tray?

**Reinforcing ideas**

Noble Nibbles are serving trays of finger food to a function. They have estimated that 3600 individual nibbles are needed.

- Trays of nibbles are laid out in rectangular arrays of 5 x 8 pieces. How many items are there on each full tray?
- How many full trays are needed to provide the 3600 nibbles?
- The waiting staff will take one tray out at a time each, circulating until it is empty, then returning to the kitchen for a new tray. If there are ten waiting staff employed for the function, how many trays will each of the waiting staff take over the course of the function?

**Extending ideas**

Noble Nibbles need to serve trays of finger food to a function of 200 people. They have allowed for one nibble per person every five minutes, over the 1 ½ hours the function will last. The ten waiting staff leave the kitchen with one full tray each. They will be expected to circulate for ten minutes and then return to the kitchen to replace the empty tray with a new, full one. How many items are on each tray on average?