Target group: Students in years 1–3
- applying advanced counting strategies to addition and subtraction problems
- counting on and back in ones from any number between 1 and 100.
Teacher observation over a range of activities
The student may be able to solve addition and subtraction problems by counting on from one using materials or imaging. The student may have difficulty trusting the count, reverting to counting from one when solving a problem. For example, when solving 8 + 3, the student may hold up eight fingers but still count from one when joining the two sets.
When counting over the decades, the student often uses the wrong decade, for example, “38, 39, um, um, 60, 61”.
Possible barriers to the student’s progress
- Inability to count on or back to solve problems 
- Confusion about teen numbers 
- Limited understanding of tens and ones in numbers to 100 
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